Health Scope Health Scope Health Scope http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools 2251-8959 2251-9513 10.5812/jhealthscope. en jalali 2019 8 18 gregorian 2019 8 18 5 4
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-29634 Predicting Soil Sorption Coefficients of Phenanthrene Using a Neural Network Model Predicting Soil Sorption Coefficients of Phenanthrene Using a Neural Network Model research-article research-article Results

Multilayer perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network (ANN) model with a 1-6-1 structure was chosen which explained 97% and 95% of Kd and Koc variances, respectively. The only input data was soil organic carbon content.

Conclusions

Based on this study, the ANN method is a promising alternative for conventional methods in modeling and estimating sorption coefficients in relation to soil organic carbon.

Background

Sorption coefficient modeling is an effective technique for investigating fate and behavior of environmental pollutants. As a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), Phenanthrene is an important organic pollutant, mainly due to its health risks for humankind.

Materials and Methods

The required data were derived from previous studies carried out on soil samples taken from an under pasture paddock at Flaxley agriculture centre, mount lofty ranges, South Australia (Ahangar et al., 2008). An eight-fold cross-validation technique was also used to choose the best performance model and to obtain more authentic and precise results.

Objectives

To offer an alternative for laborious and high- priced experimental measurements, this study aimed to introduce an accurate artificial intelligence-based model, using minimum input data, to predict soil sorption coefficients (Koc and Kd) of phenanthrene.

Results

Multilayer perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network (ANN) model with a 1-6-1 structure was chosen which explained 97% and 95% of Kd and Koc variances, respectively. The only input data was soil organic carbon content.

Conclusions

Based on this study, the ANN method is a promising alternative for conventional methods in modeling and estimating sorption coefficients in relation to soil organic carbon.

Background

Sorption coefficient modeling is an effective technique for investigating fate and behavior of environmental pollutants. As a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), Phenanthrene is an important organic pollutant, mainly due to its health risks for humankind.

Materials and Methods

The required data were derived from previous studies carried out on soil samples taken from an under pasture paddock at Flaxley agriculture centre, mount lofty ranges, South Australia (Ahangar et al., 2008). An eight-fold cross-validation technique was also used to choose the best performance model and to obtain more authentic and precise results.

Objectives

To offer an alternative for laborious and high- priced experimental measurements, this study aimed to introduce an accurate artificial intelligence-based model, using minimum input data, to predict soil sorption coefficients (Koc and Kd) of phenanthrene.

Artificial Intelligence;Chemistry;Herbicides;Phenanthrene;Soil Pollutants Artificial Intelligence;Chemistry;Herbicides;Phenanthrene;Soil Pollutants http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=29634 Asma Shabani Asma Shabani Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Soil and Water, University of Zabol, Zabol, IR Iran; Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Soil and Water, University of Zabol, Zabol, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5422240748, Fax: +98-5422232501 Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Soil and Water, University of Zabol, Zabol, IR Iran; Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Soil and Water, University of Zabol, Zabol, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5422240748, Fax: +98-5422232501 Ahmad Gholamalizadeh Ahangar Ahmad Gholamalizadeh Ahangar Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Soil and Water, University of Zabol, Zabol, IR Iran Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Soil and Water, University of Zabol, Zabol, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-31570 The Frequency of Head Lice, Health Practices and Its Associated Factors in Primary Schools in Khorramshahr, Iran The Frequency of Head Lice, Health Practices and Its Associated Factors in Primary Schools in Khorramshahr, Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

The overall infestation rate in the present study is probably one of the lowest infestation rates in Iran and in the region. It appears necessary to examine pupils by trained persons for early detection of infestation.

Results

According to the obtained results, Pediculosis spp. prevalence was 2% among male and female students of Khorramshahr primary schools; it was 2.6% in females and 1.5% in males. There was a significant relationship between using common tools and equipment (comb, towel, hat, headscarf and bed). There was a significant relationship between bathing and infestation. There was no statistically significant difference between infestation and mothers’ education and occupation. But, the difference between fathers’ education and occupation and pupils’ infestation rate was significant.

Objectives

The current study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of head lice and determine its related factors.

Materials and Methods

The children were selected by stratified systematic cluster random sampling of primary schools in 2008 - 2009 in Khorramshahr, Iran. A total of 750 pupils were screened from ten primary schools from the first to fifth grades. Students were examined for live lice or nits by experienced educators. The data were compared by Chi-square analysis. Also, P value less than 0.05 was considered significant.

Background

Head louse infestation caused by Pediculus capitis is a health issue that frequently affects school aged children. This infestation has harmful social and mental effects and is related to the populations with low social-hygiene status.

Conclusions

The overall infestation rate in the present study is probably one of the lowest infestation rates in Iran and in the region. It appears necessary to examine pupils by trained persons for early detection of infestation.

Results

According to the obtained results, Pediculosis spp. prevalence was 2% among male and female students of Khorramshahr primary schools; it was 2.6% in females and 1.5% in males. There was a significant relationship between using common tools and equipment (comb, towel, hat, headscarf and bed). There was a significant relationship between bathing and infestation. There was no statistically significant difference between infestation and mothers’ education and occupation. But, the difference between fathers’ education and occupation and pupils’ infestation rate was significant.

Objectives

The current study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of head lice and determine its related factors.

Materials and Methods

The children were selected by stratified systematic cluster random sampling of primary schools in 2008 - 2009 in Khorramshahr, Iran. A total of 750 pupils were screened from ten primary schools from the first to fifth grades. Students were examined for live lice or nits by experienced educators. The data were compared by Chi-square analysis. Also, P value less than 0.05 was considered significant.

Background

Head louse infestation caused by Pediculus capitis is a health issue that frequently affects school aged children. This infestation has harmful social and mental effects and is related to the populations with low social-hygiene status.

Prevalence;Associated Factors;Primary Schools;Iran;Pediculosis Capitis Prevalence;Associated Factors;Primary Schools;Iran;Pediculosis Capitis http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=31570 Hamid Kassiri Hamid Kassiri Health Faculty, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran; Health Faculty, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-61133738269, Fax: +98-61133738282 Health Faculty, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran; Health Faculty, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-61133738269, Fax: +98-61133738282 Arezo Gatifi Arezo Gatifi Student Research Committee, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Student Research Committee, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-33421 The Effect of Exercise Type on Inflammatory Markers in Obese Survivors With Breast Cancer: Randomized Control Trial The Effect of Exercise Type on Inflammatory Markers in Obese Survivors With Breast Cancer: Randomized Control Trial research-article research-article Conclusions

Exercise can improve anthropometric variables, body composition and VO2 peak and reduce some inflammatory markers in breast cancer survivors.

Objectives

The current study aimed to investigate the effect of eight weeks of training on IL-6, TNF-α and hCRP in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors.

Patients and Methods

Twenty-seven postmenopausal breast cancer survivors with mean age of 44.1 ± 4.6, mean height of 158 ± 5.9 cm and mean Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30.2 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomly divided to three groups; continuous, interval and the control groups. Inflammatory markers, anthropometric variables and VO2 peak were measured before and after the eight weeks. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using the Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon test at a significance level of P < 0.05.

Results

The anthropometric variables, body fat percentage and adipose tissue reduced significantly in both exercise groups (P < 0.05), and the difference between the two groups was not significant in terms of this reduction. No significant changes were observed in the control group (P > 0.05). The human C-Reactive Protein (hCRP) levels showed a significant reduction in the continuous group (P = 0.015), and the reductions in Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin6 (IL-6) were also greater in this group than in the other two groups. No significant differences were observed between the two exercise groups in their inflammatory markers.

Background

Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women throughout the world and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women

Conclusions

Exercise can improve anthropometric variables, body composition and VO2 peak and reduce some inflammatory markers in breast cancer survivors.

Objectives

The current study aimed to investigate the effect of eight weeks of training on IL-6, TNF-α and hCRP in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors.

Patients and Methods

Twenty-seven postmenopausal breast cancer survivors with mean age of 44.1 ± 4.6, mean height of 158 ± 5.9 cm and mean Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30.2 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomly divided to three groups; continuous, interval and the control groups. Inflammatory markers, anthropometric variables and VO2 peak were measured before and after the eight weeks. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using the Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon test at a significance level of P < 0.05.

Results

The anthropometric variables, body fat percentage and adipose tissue reduced significantly in both exercise groups (P < 0.05), and the difference between the two groups was not significant in terms of this reduction. No significant changes were observed in the control group (P > 0.05). The human C-Reactive Protein (hCRP) levels showed a significant reduction in the continuous group (P = 0.015), and the reductions in Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin6 (IL-6) were also greater in this group than in the other two groups. No significant differences were observed between the two exercise groups in their inflammatory markers.

Background

Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women throughout the world and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women

Training;Inflammatory Markers;Breast Cancer Training;Inflammatory Markers;Breast Cancer http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=33421 Neda Tizdast Neda Tizdast Department of Physical Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Physical Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran Farshad Ghazalian Farshad Ghazalian Department of Physical Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Physical Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9123011915, Fax: +98-2122576373 Department of Physical Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Physical Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9123011915, Fax: +98-2122576373 Mandana Gholami Mandana Gholami Department of Physical Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Physical Education, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-34428 Bacterial and Fungal Contamination of Elevator Buttons in University Schools of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran Bacterial and Fungal Contamination of Elevator Buttons in University Schools of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

The study showed that elevator buttons could lead to transmission of pathogenic bacteria. It is necessary to clean and disinfect elevator buttons daily, especially in departments with high contamination potential such as laboratories, particularly in biological laboratories and pilot plant rooms.

Methods

The study was a across sectional research. Samples were taken from elevator buttons in the schools of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Detection of the type of bacteria and fungi was done in blood agar, eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar and sabouraud dextrose agar according to the standard microbiological methods. Finally, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi were identified.

Results

This study was conducted on 35 buttons from seven elevators in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences schools. All the samples showed bacterial contamination (100%) with the kind of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and all of them had Staphylococcus and Enterobacter species contamination. Schools of medicine, dentistry, management and medical information sciences had the highest bacterial contamination. On the other hand, fungal contamination was not detected in the samples.

Background

The control of microorganisms in industrial and residential environments is the main concern regarding the spread of infectious diseases.

Objectives

The current study aimed to isolate the bacteria and fungi from elevator buttons in the schools of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Conclusions

The study showed that elevator buttons could lead to transmission of pathogenic bacteria. It is necessary to clean and disinfect elevator buttons daily, especially in departments with high contamination potential such as laboratories, particularly in biological laboratories and pilot plant rooms.

Methods

The study was a across sectional research. Samples were taken from elevator buttons in the schools of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Detection of the type of bacteria and fungi was done in blood agar, eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar and sabouraud dextrose agar according to the standard microbiological methods. Finally, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi were identified.

Results

This study was conducted on 35 buttons from seven elevators in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences schools. All the samples showed bacterial contamination (100%) with the kind of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and all of them had Staphylococcus and Enterobacter species contamination. Schools of medicine, dentistry, management and medical information sciences had the highest bacterial contamination. On the other hand, fungal contamination was not detected in the samples.

Background

The control of microorganisms in industrial and residential environments is the main concern regarding the spread of infectious diseases.

Objectives

The current study aimed to isolate the bacteria and fungi from elevator buttons in the schools of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Microbial Contamination;Fungi;Elevator;Medical Schools Microbial Contamination;Fungi;Elevator;Medical Schools http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=34428 Amir Mohammadi Amir Mohammadi Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3538209100 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3538209100 Afshin Ebrahimi Afshin Ebrahimi Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Environment Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Environment Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Sepideh Nemati Sepideh Nemati Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IR Iran Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-34901 Ergonomics Risk Management in a Manufacturing Company Using ELECTRE Ergonomics Risk Management in a Manufacturing Company Using ELECTRE research-article research-article Results

The total ART score was equal to 30.07 ± 12.43. Data analysis from ART illustrated that 74.6% of 240 cases were in high and 13.8% were in medium level of risk. ART-ELECTRE results revealed that grading and pars naghsh halls were in the best and decoration hall was in the worst ergonomic conditions and should be placed in the top priority of action level.

Background

In this paper, the ergonomic risks factors which may influence health are assessed in a manufacturing company in 2014. Based on decision making model, different halls were classified in terms of action level.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate ergonomic risk factors in an industrial company using assessment of repetitive tasks (ART) method and to make priority of salons to implement corrective actions based on the results of the ELECTRE method.

Materials and Methods

This cross-sectional study consisted all employees working in seven halls of an ark opal manufacturing (n = 240) and 13 tasks were included. Required information were gathered by demographic questionnaire and assessment of repetitive tasks (ART) method for repetitive task assessment. In addition, ELECTRE method was used to prioritize the studied halls. SPSS version 20 and MATLAB were used for analysis.

Conclusions

The obtained results showed that the ELECTRE method can be used for ergonomic and human factor engineering challenges successfully. It seems that macro- and micro-ergonomic solutions along with employee’s participation, based on the scientific decision-making procedures, can lead to effectiveness in health level enhancement of industrial settings increasingly.

Results

The total ART score was equal to 30.07 ± 12.43. Data analysis from ART illustrated that 74.6% of 240 cases were in high and 13.8% were in medium level of risk. ART-ELECTRE results revealed that grading and pars naghsh halls were in the best and decoration hall was in the worst ergonomic conditions and should be placed in the top priority of action level.

Background

In this paper, the ergonomic risks factors which may influence health are assessed in a manufacturing company in 2014. Based on decision making model, different halls were classified in terms of action level.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate ergonomic risk factors in an industrial company using assessment of repetitive tasks (ART) method and to make priority of salons to implement corrective actions based on the results of the ELECTRE method.

Materials and Methods

This cross-sectional study consisted all employees working in seven halls of an ark opal manufacturing (n = 240) and 13 tasks were included. Required information were gathered by demographic questionnaire and assessment of repetitive tasks (ART) method for repetitive task assessment. In addition, ELECTRE method was used to prioritize the studied halls. SPSS version 20 and MATLAB were used for analysis.

Conclusions

The obtained results showed that the ELECTRE method can be used for ergonomic and human factor engineering challenges successfully. It seems that macro- and micro-ergonomic solutions along with employee’s participation, based on the scientific decision-making procedures, can lead to effectiveness in health level enhancement of industrial settings increasingly.

Ergonomics Risk Factors;Art Method;Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis;ELECTRE Ergonomics Risk Factors;Art Method;Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis;ELECTRE http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=34901 Mohammad Khandan Mohammad Khandan Ergonomics Department, Health Faculty, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, IR Iran Ergonomics Department, Health Faculty, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, IR Iran Alireza Koohpaei Alireza Koohpaei Occupational Health Department, Health Faculty, Work Health Research Centre, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, IR Iran; Occupational Health Department, Health Faculty, Work Health Research Centre, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2537835522, Fax: +98-2537833361 Occupational Health Department, Health Faculty, Work Health Research Centre, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, IR Iran; Occupational Health Department, Health Faculty, Work Health Research Centre, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2537835522, Fax: +98-2537833361
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-35250 Study of Personal Hearing Protection Devices Usage in Kashan Carpet Industry Workers Study of Personal Hearing Protection Devices Usage in Kashan Carpet Industry Workers research-article research-article Results

The mean age and work experience of workers were 31.39 ± 5.6 and 4.35 ± 2.5 years, respectively. Among the exposed-to-noise personnel, 7.35% used HPDs constantly; 75% used HPDs for only short periods of time (less than four hours) and 17.65% did not make use of them at all. Regarding the sound intensity and the level of noise reduction of HPDs, among the 112 workers who used such devices, 59.6% had HPDs with appropriate protection and 22.8% used inappropriate ones. There was a significant relationship between age, work experience, education and use of HPDs. Inappropriateness and difficulty in the use of the devices were also reported as the main reasons for not using them.

Conclusions

This study showed an unsatisfactory situation in the mentioned industries for HPDs usage; low percentage of usage, low preparation rate, the inappropriateness of some of the HPDs, and unawareness of some of the workers. A noise training and education program is recommended to be developed for workers in order to protect them from hazardous noises.

Background

Exposure to noise can result in hearing loss in many industrial workers. In many cases, hearing protective devices (HPDs) are considered as the main protective objects. As a large number of workers in the Iranian carpet weaving industry are usually exposed to noise levels exceeding the permissible exposure limits.

Objectives

This study was conducted to evaluate the use of HPDs, quality of available equipment and possible reasons for lack of protective devices usage.

Methods

In a descriptive, cross-sectional study, 136 workers of Kashan carpet industries exposed to noise pressure levels greater than the action level defined in the Iranian legislation (85 dB (A) 8 h/d) were evaluated for HPDs use. The quality and HPDs suitability was defined according to the workers exposure to noise, available HPDs and their Noise Reduction Rate (NRR). The reasons for non-usage of HPDs were evaluated as well. Data were analyzed using the SPSS v. 18 software.

Results

The mean age and work experience of workers were 31.39 ± 5.6 and 4.35 ± 2.5 years, respectively. Among the exposed-to-noise personnel, 7.35% used HPDs constantly; 75% used HPDs for only short periods of time (less than four hours) and 17.65% did not make use of them at all. Regarding the sound intensity and the level of noise reduction of HPDs, among the 112 workers who used such devices, 59.6% had HPDs with appropriate protection and 22.8% used inappropriate ones. There was a significant relationship between age, work experience, education and use of HPDs. Inappropriateness and difficulty in the use of the devices were also reported as the main reasons for not using them.

Conclusions

This study showed an unsatisfactory situation in the mentioned industries for HPDs usage; low percentage of usage, low preparation rate, the inappropriateness of some of the HPDs, and unawareness of some of the workers. A noise training and education program is recommended to be developed for workers in order to protect them from hazardous noises.

Background

Exposure to noise can result in hearing loss in many industrial workers. In many cases, hearing protective devices (HPDs) are considered as the main protective objects. As a large number of workers in the Iranian carpet weaving industry are usually exposed to noise levels exceeding the permissible exposure limits.

Objectives

This study was conducted to evaluate the use of HPDs, quality of available equipment and possible reasons for lack of protective devices usage.

Methods

In a descriptive, cross-sectional study, 136 workers of Kashan carpet industries exposed to noise pressure levels greater than the action level defined in the Iranian legislation (85 dB (A) 8 h/d) were evaluated for HPDs use. The quality and HPDs suitability was defined according to the workers exposure to noise, available HPDs and their Noise Reduction Rate (NRR). The reasons for non-usage of HPDs were evaluated as well. Data were analyzed using the SPSS v. 18 software.

Hearing Protective Devices;Carpet Industry;Noise Hearing Protective Devices;Carpet Industry;Noise http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=35250 Ebrahim Taban Ebrahim Taban Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Mohsen Yazdani Aval Mohsen Yazdani Aval Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Omran Ahmadi Omran Ahmadi Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammad Miri Mohammad Miri Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran Mohammad Fereidan Mohammad Fereidan Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Health, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, IR Iran Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Health, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, IR Iran Maryam Rostami Aghdam Shendi Maryam Rostami Aghdam Shendi Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tehran University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tehran University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9365494864 Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tehran University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tehran University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9365494864
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-36011 Characteristics of Iranian Hookah Smokers Aged 15 and Above: A Primary Report Characteristics of Iranian Hookah Smokers Aged 15 and Above: A Primary Report research-article research-article Conclusions

The present study reports the characteristics of Iranian hookah smokers. Most hookah smokers were educated young adults, who often smoked at home or in teahouses and in the company of friends. The majority of the participants smoked fruit-flavored tobacco and had no desire or intention to quit smoking. Further studies in this field are required and hookah smoking should also be incorporated in tobacco control programs.

Background

Despite the increasing prevalence of hookah smoking in Iran and in different age groups and genders, there is a lack of precise information on hookah smokers in the country.

Objectives

The present study was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of Hookah smokers in Iran.

Methods

The present cross-sectional study was conducted through stratified multistage cluster sampling in five districts of Tehran municipality. Our subjects were Hookah smokers aged 15 years and older. Their characteristics were studied by using the hookah section of the world health organization (WHO) Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

Results

The study examined 316 hookah smokers, including 212 males and 104 females. A total of 49.2% of the participants were at the age group of 25 to 39; 42.7% of the female participants and 25.1% of the male participants had an academic education; 68% of the participants had smoked hookah for the first time in the company of friends, and parties comprised the most common place for starting hookah smoking. A total of 168 (53.3%) participants smoked at home for the most part, 15.4% of the female participants smoked hookah in traditional restaurants that served hookah and 100 (47.4%) of the male participants smoked in parks and teahouses. A large number of participants consumed flavored tobacco. The mean age at first hookah smoking was 21.3 ± 6.4. A total of 59.4% of the participants had no desire or intention to quit hookah smoking at the moment, and 52.6% of the participants also smoked cigarettes. Being male (OR: 2.24) was positively associated with daily water-pipe consumption.

Conclusions

The present study reports the characteristics of Iranian hookah smokers. Most hookah smokers were educated young adults, who often smoked at home or in teahouses and in the company of friends. The majority of the participants smoked fruit-flavored tobacco and had no desire or intention to quit smoking. Further studies in this field are required and hookah smoking should also be incorporated in tobacco control programs.

Background

Despite the increasing prevalence of hookah smoking in Iran and in different age groups and genders, there is a lack of precise information on hookah smokers in the country.

Objectives

The present study was conducted to evaluate the characteristics of Hookah smokers in Iran.

Methods

The present cross-sectional study was conducted through stratified multistage cluster sampling in five districts of Tehran municipality. Our subjects were Hookah smokers aged 15 years and older. Their characteristics were studied by using the hookah section of the world health organization (WHO) Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

Results

The study examined 316 hookah smokers, including 212 males and 104 females. A total of 49.2% of the participants were at the age group of 25 to 39; 42.7% of the female participants and 25.1% of the male participants had an academic education; 68% of the participants had smoked hookah for the first time in the company of friends, and parties comprised the most common place for starting hookah smoking. A total of 168 (53.3%) participants smoked at home for the most part, 15.4% of the female participants smoked hookah in traditional restaurants that served hookah and 100 (47.4%) of the male participants smoked in parks and teahouses. A large number of participants consumed flavored tobacco. The mean age at first hookah smoking was 21.3 ± 6.4. A total of 59.4% of the participants had no desire or intention to quit hookah smoking at the moment, and 52.6% of the participants also smoked cigarettes. Being male (OR: 2.24) was positively associated with daily water-pipe consumption.

Hookah;Smoking;Tobacco;Cross-Sectional Studies;Iran Hookah;Smoking;Tobacco;Cross-Sectional Studies;Iran http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=36011 Zahra Hessami Zahra Hessami Tobacco Prevention and Control Research Center, National Research Institute Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Tobacco Prevention and Control Research Center, National Research Institute Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mohammadreza Masjedi Mohammadreza Masjedi Tobacco Control Research Center, Iranian Anti Tobacco Association, Tehran, Iran; Tobacco Control Research Center, Iranian Anti Tobacco Association, Tehran, Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2122439982 Tobacco Control Research Center, Iranian Anti Tobacco Association, Tehran, Iran; Tobacco Control Research Center, Iranian Anti Tobacco Association, Tehran, Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-2122439982 Hooman Sharifi Hooman Sharifi Tobacco Prevention and Control Research Center, National Research Institute Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Tobacco Prevention and Control Research Center, National Research Institute Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Habib Emami Habib Emami Tobacco Prevention and Control Research Center, National Research Institute Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Tobacco Prevention and Control Research Center, National Research Institute Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mehdi Kazempour Mehdi Kazempour Department of Statistical, National Research Institute Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Statistical, National Research Institute Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Hamidreza Jamaati Hamidreza Jamaati Tobacco Prevention and Control Research Center, National Research Institute Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Tobacco Prevention and Control Research Center, National Research Institute Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-36056 Assessment of Lead Contamination in Soils of Urban Parks of Khorramabad, Iran Assessment of Lead Contamination in Soils of Urban Parks of Khorramabad, Iran research-article research-article Objectives

The aim of this study was to assess soils of Khorramabad metropolis in order to establish the concentration of lead and develop a contamination factor map.

Materials and Methods

Soil samples were collected from 25 different urban parks in Khorramabad, Iran. The mean Pb contents in the urban topsoil samples were compared with mean concentrations for other cities around the world. A spatial distribution map of lead was created by GIS.

Conclusions

It was revealed that the contents in lead tend to increase in the historic and central part of the city. Map of lead distribution and contamination factor were created for this city indicating vehicular emission as the main source of lead pollution and likewise role of place and age of the park in accumulation of lead.

Results

Analysis of urban soil samples for Pb content indicated the presence of Pb in all soil samples collected from the 40 sampling sites in 25 urban parks at varying concentrations ranging from 0.05 - 35 mg/kg. Elevated levels of Pb in soil were found in the center of the city. The findings regarding contamination factor (CF) showed low to moderate contamination of urban soil by lead.

Background

The urban environment quality is of vital importance as most people throughout the world live in cities. For this reason, there is a need to monitor lead levels in the environment, particularly in metropolitan areas. To date, no research on soil pollution in Khorramabad urban areas has been performed.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to assess soils of Khorramabad metropolis in order to establish the concentration of lead and develop a contamination factor map.

Materials and Methods

Soil samples were collected from 25 different urban parks in Khorramabad, Iran. The mean Pb contents in the urban topsoil samples were compared with mean concentrations for other cities around the world. A spatial distribution map of lead was created by GIS.

Conclusions

It was revealed that the contents in lead tend to increase in the historic and central part of the city. Map of lead distribution and contamination factor were created for this city indicating vehicular emission as the main source of lead pollution and likewise role of place and age of the park in accumulation of lead.

Results

Analysis of urban soil samples for Pb content indicated the presence of Pb in all soil samples collected from the 40 sampling sites in 25 urban parks at varying concentrations ranging from 0.05 - 35 mg/kg. Elevated levels of Pb in soil were found in the center of the city. The findings regarding contamination factor (CF) showed low to moderate contamination of urban soil by lead.

Background

The urban environment quality is of vital importance as most people throughout the world live in cities. For this reason, there is a need to monitor lead levels in the environment, particularly in metropolitan areas. To date, no research on soil pollution in Khorramabad urban areas has been performed.

Lead;Soil;Parks;Contamination Lead;Soil;Parks;Contamination http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=36056 Eisa Solgi Eisa Solgi Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Malayer University, Malayer, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Malayer University, P. O. Box: 65719-95863, Malayer, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8133339841, Fax: +98-8133339844 Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Malayer University, Malayer, Hamadan, IR Iran; Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Malayer University, P. O. Box: 65719-95863, Malayer, Hamadan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-8133339841, Fax: +98-8133339844 Rohangiz Konani Rohangiz Konani Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Malayer University, Malayer, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Malayer University, Malayer, Hamadan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-37453 Health Literacy in Older Adults and Its Related Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study in Southeast Iran Health Literacy in Older Adults and Its Related Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study in Southeast Iran research-article research-article Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 older adults in southeast Iran, during year 2015. The twenty health centers were selected randomly and 10 subjects were selected using multistage random sampling from a population from each health center. The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults Questionnaire was used for collecting the data. The data was analyzed using the Stata.12 software using Independent T test, Chi-square test and multiple linear regression.

Results

The mean age of the subjects was 62.1 ± 3.9 years (ranging from 55 to 75 years old). The total mean score of health literacy was 64.4 ± 18.4 (range: 12 to 97). The mean score of health literacy amongst males and females was 61.5 ± 19.9 (range: 12 - 96) and 67.1 ± 16.6 (range: 22 - 97), respectively (P = 0.032). About 38.5% (n = 77), 29% (n = 58) and 32.5% (n = 65) of the subjects had inadequate, borderline and adequate HL level, respectively. Bivariate analysis and the results of linear regression analysis demonstrated that monthly income (β = 6.25, 95% CI: 5.03 - 17.27), educational level (β=6.61, 95% CI: 1.78-10.3) and husband’s educational level (β = 5.11, 95% CI: 3.2 - 11.21) were significantly associated with health literacy scores level of older adults.

Conclusions

The results of this study showed that generally health literacy level is low among older adults in southeast Iran and needs special attention. The level of education was the most important determinant of health literacy. It seems that the best way to increase health literacy among older adults is health literacy training programs that should be implemented with respect to educational level, gender and income of the individuals.

Background

Health literacy can influence physical activity, mortality, self-care behaviors and health outcome for some conditions and diseases especially among the aged population.

Objectives

This study aimed to assess health literacy in older adults and its related factors to encourage and inform interventions and the future research outline concerning this group of population in Iran.

Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 older adults in southeast Iran, during year 2015. The twenty health centers were selected randomly and 10 subjects were selected using multistage random sampling from a population from each health center. The Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults Questionnaire was used for collecting the data. The data was analyzed using the Stata.12 software using Independent T test, Chi-square test and multiple linear regression.

Results

The mean age of the subjects was 62.1 ± 3.9 years (ranging from 55 to 75 years old). The total mean score of health literacy was 64.4 ± 18.4 (range: 12 to 97). The mean score of health literacy amongst males and females was 61.5 ± 19.9 (range: 12 - 96) and 67.1 ± 16.6 (range: 22 - 97), respectively (P = 0.032). About 38.5% (n = 77), 29% (n = 58) and 32.5% (n = 65) of the subjects had inadequate, borderline and adequate HL level, respectively. Bivariate analysis and the results of linear regression analysis demonstrated that monthly income (β = 6.25, 95% CI: 5.03 - 17.27), educational level (β=6.61, 95% CI: 1.78-10.3) and husband’s educational level (β = 5.11, 95% CI: 3.2 - 11.21) were significantly associated with health literacy scores level of older adults.

Conclusions

The results of this study showed that generally health literacy level is low among older adults in southeast Iran and needs special attention. The level of education was the most important determinant of health literacy. It seems that the best way to increase health literacy among older adults is health literacy training programs that should be implemented with respect to educational level, gender and income of the individuals.

Background

Health literacy can influence physical activity, mortality, self-care behaviors and health outcome for some conditions and diseases especially among the aged population.

Objectives

This study aimed to assess health literacy in older adults and its related factors to encourage and inform interventions and the future research outline concerning this group of population in Iran.

Health Literacy;Older Adults;Aged Population;Zahedan Health Literacy;Older Adults;Aged Population;Zahedan http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=37453 Hossein Ansari Hossein Ansari Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran; Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9126309480, Fax: +98-5433425375 Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran; Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9126309480, Fax: +98-5433425375 Zeinab Almasi Zeinab Almasi Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Mahdi Mohammadi Mahdi Mohammadi Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Mostafa Peyvand Mostafa Peyvand Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Mahsa Hajmohammadi Mahsa Hajmohammadi Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Fatemeh Bagheri Fatemeh Bagheri Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-38736 Estimation of the Number of Excess Hospitalizations Attributed to Sulfur Dioxide in Six Major Cities of Iran Estimation of the Number of Excess Hospitalizations Attributed to Sulfur Dioxide in Six Major Cities of Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

Although relative risk per 10 µg/m3 is low and sometimes mortality and morbidity attributable to pollutant seems slight because of sensitive and large population exposed to air pollutants, burden of disease associated with air pollution will be great. Therefore, authorities should apply necessary actions and efforts based on comprehensive scientific researches in order to control air pollutants and abate their negative effects on human health.

Results

The total cumulative numbers of hospital admissions due to COPD (HA-COPD) were estimated in six Iranian major cities, which were 243 in central relative risk in a year. For hospital admission due to Acute Myocardial Infraction (HA-AMI), the highest impact of SO2 exposure was for Urmia with attributable proportion (AP) of 4.56%, corresponding to 41 excess cases in this city.

Methods

First, hourly air pollution data related to SO2 were obtained from the department of environmental in six major cities of Iran. Next, required parameters were calculated and imported to AirQ software after data analysis and processing. Finally, output results of the number of excess hospitalizations attributed to SO2 was presented in the form of tables and graphs.

Background

Air pollution is an important issue and public concern throughout the world. Sulfur dioxide is one of the pollutants that can lead to many adverse effects on human health, animal and plant life.

Objectives

Our study aimed to estimate excess hospitalization cases due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) disease due to short-term exposure to SO2 during years 2011 to 2012, in six major cities of Iran including Tehran, Mashhad, Tabriz, Isfahan, Shiraz and Urmia.

Conclusions

Although relative risk per 10 µg/m3 is low and sometimes mortality and morbidity attributable to pollutant seems slight because of sensitive and large population exposed to air pollutants, burden of disease associated with air pollution will be great. Therefore, authorities should apply necessary actions and efforts based on comprehensive scientific researches in order to control air pollutants and abate their negative effects on human health.

Results

The total cumulative numbers of hospital admissions due to COPD (HA-COPD) were estimated in six Iranian major cities, which were 243 in central relative risk in a year. For hospital admission due to Acute Myocardial Infraction (HA-AMI), the highest impact of SO2 exposure was for Urmia with attributable proportion (AP) of 4.56%, corresponding to 41 excess cases in this city.

Methods

First, hourly air pollution data related to SO2 were obtained from the department of environmental in six major cities of Iran. Next, required parameters were calculated and imported to AirQ software after data analysis and processing. Finally, output results of the number of excess hospitalizations attributed to SO2 was presented in the form of tables and graphs.

Background

Air pollution is an important issue and public concern throughout the world. Sulfur dioxide is one of the pollutants that can lead to many adverse effects on human health, animal and plant life.

Objectives

Our study aimed to estimate excess hospitalization cases due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) disease due to short-term exposure to SO2 during years 2011 to 2012, in six major cities of Iran including Tehran, Mashhad, Tabriz, Isfahan, Shiraz and Urmia.

Air Pollution;Sulfur Dioxide;Hospital Admission;Iran Air Pollution;Sulfur Dioxide;Hospital Admission;Iran http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=38736 Majid Kermani Majid Kermani Research Center for Environmental Health Technology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Environmental Health Engineering Department, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Research Center for Environmental Health Technology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Environmental Health Engineering Department, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Sevda Fallah Jokandan Sevda Fallah Jokandan Environmental Health Engineering Department, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Environmental Health Engineering Department, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Mina Aghaei Mina Aghaei Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Center for Air Pollution Research (SAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Center for Air Pollution Research (SAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Farshad Bahrami Asl Farshad Bahrami Asl Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Sima Karimzadeh Sima Karimzadeh Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IR Iran Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IR Iran Mohsen Dowlati Mohsen Dowlati Research Center for Environmental Health Technology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Research Center for Environmental Health Technology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-40439 Application of Heterogeneous Catalytic Ozonation Process with Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles for Toluene Degradation in Aqueous Environments Application of Heterogeneous Catalytic Ozonation Process with Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles for Toluene Degradation in Aqueous Environments research-article research-article Conclusions

According to the results, COP is an efficient and rapid method for removing of toluene from aqueous solutions.

Results

The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the toluene degradation by COP/MgO nanoparticles showed F-value of 19.53 for the quadratic model indicating that the prepared model is significant. The predicted result showed that maximum degradation of toluene (~99.99%) could be achieved at pH 12, MgO dose 0.5 g, ozonation time of 50 minutes and initial toluene concentration of 10 mg/l. The correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.9480) indicates a good correlation between the experimental and predicted values.

Objectives

In this study, the efficiency of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation process (COP) with MgO nanoparticles for toluene degradation in aqueous solutions was investigated.

Materials and Methods

Response surface methodology (RSM) using central composite design (CCD) was applied to study the interactions between critical operating factors and to find their optimum levels. Four independent factors namely pH, catalyst dosage, ozonation time and concentration of toluene were transformed to coded values and consequently a second order quadratic model was prepared for responses prediction.

Background

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) removal like toluene is an important concern for health of humans and the environment.

Conclusions

According to the results, COP is an efficient and rapid method for removing of toluene from aqueous solutions.

Results

The analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the toluene degradation by COP/MgO nanoparticles showed F-value of 19.53 for the quadratic model indicating that the prepared model is significant. The predicted result showed that maximum degradation of toluene (~99.99%) could be achieved at pH 12, MgO dose 0.5 g, ozonation time of 50 minutes and initial toluene concentration of 10 mg/l. The correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.9480) indicates a good correlation between the experimental and predicted values.

Objectives

In this study, the efficiency of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation process (COP) with MgO nanoparticles for toluene degradation in aqueous solutions was investigated.

Materials and Methods

Response surface methodology (RSM) using central composite design (CCD) was applied to study the interactions between critical operating factors and to find their optimum levels. Four independent factors namely pH, catalyst dosage, ozonation time and concentration of toluene were transformed to coded values and consequently a second order quadratic model was prepared for responses prediction.

Background

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) removal like toluene is an important concern for health of humans and the environment.

Toluene degradation;Heterogeneous Catalytic Ozonation;MgO/O3 Toluene degradation;Heterogeneous Catalytic Ozonation;MgO/O3 http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=40439 Leili Mohammadi Leili Mohammadi Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Edris Bazrafshan Edris Bazrafshan Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran; Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran; Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Meissam Noroozifar Meissam Noroozifar Analytical Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, IR Iran Analytical Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, IR Iran Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran