Health Scope Health Scope Health Scope http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools 2251-8959 2251-9513 10.5812/jhealthscope. en jalali 2019 8 19 gregorian 2019 8 19 4 4
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-30164 Estimation of Health Effects Attributed to Nitrogen Dioxide Exposure Using the AirQ Model in Tabriz City, Iran Estimation of Health Effects Attributed to Nitrogen Dioxide Exposure Using the AirQ Model in Tabriz City, Iran research-article research-article Materials and Methods

In the first stage, NO2 pollutant concentrations were measured using the data collected from air pollution monitoring stations. Sampling was performed in six stations. The chosen stations have been based on the US environmental protection agency (EPA) standards. In the next step, the data were processed using Excel software and information was given to the AirQ model. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software.

Results

According to the research findings, Rasteh Kocheh and Baghshomal stations had the highest and lowest nitrogen dioxide concentrations, respectively in 2012. The results showed that the annual average of the NO2 concentration in Tabriz City was 51.31 μg/m3. Sum of the total numbers of myocardial infarction, cardiovascular deaths, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs) attributed to NO2 were 16, 33, and 13 cases, respectively in 2012.

Conclusions

Results of this study show that with increasing the NO2 concentration to 10 μg/m3, risks of myocardial infarction, cardiovascular deaths and COPDs were increased to 0.36%, 0.2% and 0.38%, respectively. According result this study, because of the lack of population contact with concentrations lower than the 10 μg/m3 health effects related to NO2 was zero.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to estimate the health effects attributed to NO2 exposure using the AirQ model in Tabriz City, Iran.

Background

Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is produced in a combustion process which takes place mostly in transportation, power stations, heating plants and industrial processes. Nitrogen dioxide can have harmful effects on human health.

Materials and Methods

In the first stage, NO2 pollutant concentrations were measured using the data collected from air pollution monitoring stations. Sampling was performed in six stations. The chosen stations have been based on the US environmental protection agency (EPA) standards. In the next step, the data were processed using Excel software and information was given to the AirQ model. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software.

Results

According to the research findings, Rasteh Kocheh and Baghshomal stations had the highest and lowest nitrogen dioxide concentrations, respectively in 2012. The results showed that the annual average of the NO2 concentration in Tabriz City was 51.31 μg/m3. Sum of the total numbers of myocardial infarction, cardiovascular deaths, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs) attributed to NO2 were 16, 33, and 13 cases, respectively in 2012.

Conclusions

Results of this study show that with increasing the NO2 concentration to 10 μg/m3, risks of myocardial infarction, cardiovascular deaths and COPDs were increased to 0.36%, 0.2% and 0.38%, respectively. According result this study, because of the lack of population contact with concentrations lower than the 10 μg/m3 health effects related to NO2 was zero.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to estimate the health effects attributed to NO2 exposure using the AirQ model in Tabriz City, Iran.

Background

Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is produced in a combustion process which takes place mostly in transportation, power stations, heating plants and industrial processes. Nitrogen dioxide can have harmful effects on human health.

Nitrogen Dioxide;Quantification;Model;Health;Iran Nitrogen Dioxide;Quantification;Model;Health;Iran http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=30164 Elahe Zallaghi Elahe Zallaghi Department of Environmental Pollution, lecture at Applied Science Training Center, Ahvaz Municipality University, Ahvaz, IR Iran Department of Environmental Pollution, lecture at Applied Science Training Center, Ahvaz Municipality University, Ahvaz, IR Iran Sahar Geravandi Sahar Geravandi Department of Nursing, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Tehran, IR Iran; Clinical Research Development Center, Razi Teaching Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Department of Nursing, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Tehran, IR Iran; Clinical Research Development Center, Razi Teaching Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Mehdi Nourzadeh Haddad Mehdi Nourzadeh Haddad Department of Agricultural, Payame Noor University, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Agricultural, Payame Noor University, Tehran, IR Iran Gholamreza Goudarzi Gholamreza Goudarzi Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran; Environmental Technologies Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran; Environmental Technologies Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Leila Valipour Leila Valipour Department of Environmental Pollution, Islamic Azad university, Ahvaz, IR Iran Department of Environmental Pollution, Islamic Azad university, Ahvaz, IR Iran Shokrolah Salmanzadeh Shokrolah Salmanzadeh Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Health Research Instituted, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Health Research Instituted, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Bayram Hashemzadeh Bayram Hashemzadeh Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Amir Zahedi Amir Zahedi Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Mohammad Javad Mohammadi Mohammad Javad Mohammadi Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran; Clinical Research Development Center, Razi Teaching Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran; Mohammad Javad Mohammadi, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9355439707, Fax: +98-6113361544 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran; Clinical Research Development Center, Razi Teaching Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran; Mohammad Javad Mohammadi, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9355439707, Fax: +98-6113361544 Farhad Soltani Farhad Soltani Anesthesiologist and Fellowship Critical Care Medical, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran Anesthesiologist and Fellowship Critical Care Medical, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-23353 Path Analysis of Depression and Quality Of Life Among Nurses Path Analysis of Depression and Quality Of Life Among Nurses research-article research-article Conclusions

Based on the study results, making plans to promote mental aspect of nurses, focusing on family foundations like marriage, reducing and distributing working hours, and decreasing night shifts hours of nurses could reduce their depression and improve their quality of life.

Results

According to the final model yielded from path analysis, the most important factors contributing to depression are mental component of quality of life, marital status, night shifts, age, physical component of quality of life, and overtime which their direct effects on nurses’ depression are stronger than their indirect effects (through mental and physical components).

Objectives

The present study aimed at examining depression-related factors as well as quality of life among nurses working in Ilam hospitals.

Patients and Methods

This research is a cross-sectional study, which was conducted on all the nurses working in hospitals of Ilam during 2013. Collection of the study data was accomplished by using Beck depression inventory (BDI) and SF-12 questionnaires. Then, we used path analysis, a technique applied to test casual models. To conduct the path analysis of depression and quality of life, at first a preliminary casual mode was developed and then the final model of depression and quality of life was identified using multiple regression analysis.

Background

Broad range of nursing activities and its interdisciplinary nature have caused work stress and mood changes such as depression and other mental illnesses among nurses. Patients’ health and safety are directly related to work setting and the treatment of health care team.

Conclusions

Based on the study results, making plans to promote mental aspect of nurses, focusing on family foundations like marriage, reducing and distributing working hours, and decreasing night shifts hours of nurses could reduce their depression and improve their quality of life.

Results

According to the final model yielded from path analysis, the most important factors contributing to depression are mental component of quality of life, marital status, night shifts, age, physical component of quality of life, and overtime which their direct effects on nurses’ depression are stronger than their indirect effects (through mental and physical components).

Objectives

The present study aimed at examining depression-related factors as well as quality of life among nurses working in Ilam hospitals.

Patients and Methods

This research is a cross-sectional study, which was conducted on all the nurses working in hospitals of Ilam during 2013. Collection of the study data was accomplished by using Beck depression inventory (BDI) and SF-12 questionnaires. Then, we used path analysis, a technique applied to test casual models. To conduct the path analysis of depression and quality of life, at first a preliminary casual mode was developed and then the final model of depression and quality of life was identified using multiple regression analysis.

Background

Broad range of nursing activities and its interdisciplinary nature have caused work stress and mood changes such as depression and other mental illnesses among nurses. Patients’ health and safety are directly related to work setting and the treatment of health care team.

Quality of Life;Depression;Nurses Quality of Life;Depression;Nurses http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=23353 Aziz Kassani Aziz Kassani Prevention of Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran Prevention of Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran Walieh Menati Walieh Menati Prevention of Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran; Prevention of Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9188412938, Fax: +98-8413342887 Prevention of Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran; Prevention of Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9188412938, Fax: +98-8413342887 Rostam Menati Rostam Menati Prevention of Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran Prevention of Psychosocial Injuries Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IR Iran Mohammad Khammarnia Mohammad Khammarnia Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-25344 The Quality Gap in the Services Provided by Rural Maternity Units in Southeast of Iran The Quality Gap in the Services Provided by Rural Maternity Units in Southeast of Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

The quality gap in the services provided by maternity units showed that these units are not able to meet pregnant women’s expectations completely. The negative quality gaps can be used as a guideline to improve the maternal health care quality and reduce maternal mortality, particularly in high-risk women such as those living in rural areas.

Results

There was a negative gap in all dimensions of the quality of services provided. The highest quality gap was found for the reliability dimension followed by tangibles, empathy, assurance and responsiveness. The participants’ age, levels of education, and the type of maternity unit were found to be associated with the clients’ perceived quality of services.

Patients and Methods

In this cross-sectional study a total of 438 pregnant women who gave birth in rural maternity unit were recruited between February and May 2013. The SERVQUAL questionnaire was used for data collection. The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test was used to compare the quality gap as expressed in the mean of differences in the expectation and perception scores. The quality gap was compared between demographic groups using Kruskal-Wallis tests.

Background

Providing high-quality maternity services is crucial to increase utilization of these services and reduce maternal mortality. The quality of the maternity services provided to pregnant women in rural areas of Iran is poorly understood.

Objectives

This study aimed to investigate the quality gap in the maternity care services provided by Rural Delivery Facilities and Safe Delivery Posts in Sistan and Balouchestan Province, southeast of Iran, as expressed by the difference in women’s perceptions and experiences of services.

Conclusions

The quality gap in the services provided by maternity units showed that these units are not able to meet pregnant women’s expectations completely. The negative quality gaps can be used as a guideline to improve the maternal health care quality and reduce maternal mortality, particularly in high-risk women such as those living in rural areas.

Results

There was a negative gap in all dimensions of the quality of services provided. The highest quality gap was found for the reliability dimension followed by tangibles, empathy, assurance and responsiveness. The participants’ age, levels of education, and the type of maternity unit were found to be associated with the clients’ perceived quality of services.

Patients and Methods

In this cross-sectional study a total of 438 pregnant women who gave birth in rural maternity unit were recruited between February and May 2013. The SERVQUAL questionnaire was used for data collection. The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test was used to compare the quality gap as expressed in the mean of differences in the expectation and perception scores. The quality gap was compared between demographic groups using Kruskal-Wallis tests.

Background

Providing high-quality maternity services is crucial to increase utilization of these services and reduce maternal mortality. The quality of the maternity services provided to pregnant women in rural areas of Iran is poorly understood.

Objectives

This study aimed to investigate the quality gap in the maternity care services provided by Rural Delivery Facilities and Safe Delivery Posts in Sistan and Balouchestan Province, southeast of Iran, as expressed by the difference in women’s perceptions and experiences of services.

Iran;Health Care Quality;Maternal Health Service;Birthing Center Iran;Health Care Quality;Maternal Health Service;Birthing Center http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=25344 Seyed Mehdi Tabatabaei Seyed Mehdi Tabatabaei Department of Midwifery, Pregnancy Health Research Center, Nursing and Midwifery School, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran; Department of Midwifery, Pregnancy Health Research Center, Nursing and Midwifery School, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5433438801, Fax: +98-5433438800 Department of Midwifery, Pregnancy Health Research Center, Nursing and Midwifery School, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran; Department of Midwifery, Pregnancy Health Research Center, Nursing and Midwifery School, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5433438801, Fax: +98-5433438800 Fateme Behmanesh Pour Fateme Behmanesh Pour Department of Midwifery, Pregnancy Health Research Center, Nursing and Midwifery School, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Department of Midwifery, Pregnancy Health Research Center, Nursing and Midwifery School, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Sedighe Share Mollashahi Sedighe Share Mollashahi Department of Maternal and Child Health, Sistan and Balouchestan Provincial Health Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Department of Maternal and Child Health, Sistan and Balouchestan Provincial Health Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Zahra Sargazi Moakhar Zahra Sargazi Moakhar Department of Maternal and Child Health, Sistan and Balouchestan Provincial Health Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Department of Maternal and Child Health, Sistan and Balouchestan Provincial Health Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Maryam Zaboli Maryam Zaboli Department of Maternal and Child Health, Sistan and Balouchestan Provincial Health Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Department of Maternal and Child Health, Sistan and Balouchestan Provincial Health Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-30604 The Relationship Between Overweight and Heart Rate in Hot and Very Hot Weather Under Controlled Conditions The Relationship Between Overweight and Heart Rate in Hot and Very Hot Weather Under Controlled Conditions research-article research-article Conclusions

The mean heart rate was higher in participants who were overweight than those with normal weight.

Results

The mean and standard deviation of the heart rate in the hot climatic condition and moderate exercise were 103.84 (3.34) for normal weight subjects and 108.67 (3.27) for overweight subjects. The mean and standard deviation of the heart rate in a very hot climatic condition and light exercise were 96.13 (2.34) for those with normal weight and 105.84 (3.71) for those who were overweight. Heart rate significantly differed between the two groups in both climatic conditions (P < 0.001).

Objectives

This study examines the relationship between overweight and heart rate in hot and very hot weather under experimental conditions.

Patients and Methods

This experimental study was conducted with a sample of 35 participants with normal weight and 35 participants who were overweight in a climatic chamber. Each participant was asked to rest in a lying position on a bed for 30 minutes and the participants’ basic heart rate was recorded. Each participant performed 60-min light exercise (2.8 kmph) on a treadmill) while exposed to very hot and moderate humid climatic conditions. In the other phase, participants were asked to rest for 30 min and then performed moderate exercise (4.8 kmph on a treadmill) for 60 minutes while exposed to hot and moderate humid climatic conditions. Heart rate was measured every 2 minutes.

Background

There is a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults. Obesity and overweight might be a risk factor affecting heat generation and excretion.

Conclusions

The mean heart rate was higher in participants who were overweight than those with normal weight.

Results

The mean and standard deviation of the heart rate in the hot climatic condition and moderate exercise were 103.84 (3.34) for normal weight subjects and 108.67 (3.27) for overweight subjects. The mean and standard deviation of the heart rate in a very hot climatic condition and light exercise were 96.13 (2.34) for those with normal weight and 105.84 (3.71) for those who were overweight. Heart rate significantly differed between the two groups in both climatic conditions (P < 0.001).

Objectives

This study examines the relationship between overweight and heart rate in hot and very hot weather under experimental conditions.

Patients and Methods

This experimental study was conducted with a sample of 35 participants with normal weight and 35 participants who were overweight in a climatic chamber. Each participant was asked to rest in a lying position on a bed for 30 minutes and the participants’ basic heart rate was recorded. Each participant performed 60-min light exercise (2.8 kmph) on a treadmill) while exposed to very hot and moderate humid climatic conditions. In the other phase, participants were asked to rest for 30 min and then performed moderate exercise (4.8 kmph on a treadmill) for 60 minutes while exposed to hot and moderate humid climatic conditions. Heart rate was measured every 2 minutes.

Background

There is a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults. Obesity and overweight might be a risk factor affecting heat generation and excretion.

Heart Rate;Body Mass Index;Climatic Conditions Heart Rate;Body Mass Index;Climatic Conditions http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=30604 Saeid Yazdanirad Saeid Yazdanirad Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Habibollah Dehghan Habibollah Dehghan Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, P. O. Box: 81746-73461, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3137922733, Fax: +98-3137922733 Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran; Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, P. O. Box: 81746-73461, Isfahan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-3137922733, Fax: +98-3137922733 Yaser Rahimi Yaser Rahimi Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Mohammad Zeinodini Mohammad Zeinodini Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Mahnaz Shakeriyan Mahnaz Shakeriyan Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-29019 Measurement and Monetary Valuation of Traffic Noise Pollution by the Top-Down Method in Tabriz City Measurement and Monetary Valuation of Traffic Noise Pollution by the Top-Down Method in Tabriz City research-article research-article Conclusions

Since traffic noise pollution is a high cost for Tabriz residents, extensive preventive measures and comprehensive control programs by managers and city authorities as unavoidable necessities are suggested. The measures have to be taken by urban managers and decision-makers to reduce the health impact of traffic noise on Tabriz residents.

Background

Noise pollution is one of the most important problems of both developed and developing countries, especially in the recent decades, and is being exacerbated with industrialization and population growth.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to measure traffic noise pollution in Tabriz city and to evaluate its associated costs by applying the top-down method. Awareness about health costs associated with traffic noise could have great impacts on decision-making for traffic noise control measures.

Materials and Methods

In order to obtain the noise level (Lden) at various hours of each day, noise level was first measured at 35 stations in 10 Regions of the city, during the morning, afternoon and night. Second, to obtain the number of people with a certain level of exposer to noise (Lden), the annoyance levels due to traffic noise were assessed by collecting a questionnaire from 300 residents.

Results

Based on the study results, divisions eight, nine and two of the city (refer to the municipal division of the cities in Iran) had the highest Lden value, with 74.5, 73.5 and 71 dB, respectively. Also, the questionnaire results indicated that 60% of the residents declared medium and high level of annoyance, due to traffic noise. Finally, the calculated cost was equal to 119 926 467 Euros (€). However most costs, namely € 24 727 290, were allocated to region three with the highest population, in spite of a relatively low Lden (68.4 dB).

Conclusions

Since traffic noise pollution is a high cost for Tabriz residents, extensive preventive measures and comprehensive control programs by managers and city authorities as unavoidable necessities are suggested. The measures have to be taken by urban managers and decision-makers to reduce the health impact of traffic noise on Tabriz residents.

Background

Noise pollution is one of the most important problems of both developed and developing countries, especially in the recent decades, and is being exacerbated with industrialization and population growth.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to measure traffic noise pollution in Tabriz city and to evaluate its associated costs by applying the top-down method. Awareness about health costs associated with traffic noise could have great impacts on decision-making for traffic noise control measures.

Materials and Methods

In order to obtain the noise level (Lden) at various hours of each day, noise level was first measured at 35 stations in 10 Regions of the city, during the morning, afternoon and night. Second, to obtain the number of people with a certain level of exposer to noise (Lden), the annoyance levels due to traffic noise were assessed by collecting a questionnaire from 300 residents.

Results

Based on the study results, divisions eight, nine and two of the city (refer to the municipal division of the cities in Iran) had the highest Lden value, with 74.5, 73.5 and 71 dB, respectively. Also, the questionnaire results indicated that 60% of the residents declared medium and high level of annoyance, due to traffic noise. Finally, the calculated cost was equal to 119 926 467 Euros (€). However most costs, namely € 24 727 290, were allocated to region three with the highest population, in spite of a relatively low Lden (68.4 dB).

Noise;Cost, Willingness-to-Pay;Traffic Noise;Cost, Willingness-to-Pay;Traffic http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=29019 Sedigheh Atrkar Roshan Sedigheh Atrkar Roshan Department of Economic, University of Alzahra, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Economic, University of Alzahra, Tehran, IR Iran Omran Ahmadi Omran Ahmadi Department of Sciences of Occupational Health, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Sciences of occupational Health, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9144241240 Department of Sciences of Occupational Health, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, IR Iran; Department of Sciences of occupational Health, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9144241240
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-31015 Health Impacts of Exposure to PM10 on Inhabitants of Shiraz, Iran Health Impacts of Exposure to PM<sub>10</sub> on Inhabitants of Shiraz, Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

According to the results obtained, the largest numbers of deaths and illnesses were due to the high average PM10 concentration or an increase in the number of days of exposure to this pollutant.

Background

Particulate matters have harmful effects on human health and can intensify mortality and disease.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health impacts of particulate matter < 10 μ in diameter (PM10) on the inhabitants of Shiraz, one of the largest cities in southern Iran with a population of 1,500,000.

Materials and Methods

The AirQ2.2.3 model developed by the world health organization European centre for environment and health was used in this study. Excess cases of mortality, total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, respiratory mortality, and hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease (CVD) were calculated.

Results

The results of this study show that 25.3% cases of total mortality, 1.1% cases of cardiovascular mortality, 0.3% cases of respiratory mortality, and 3.3% cases of hospital admissions for CVD in 2012 occurred at particulate matter concentrations > 40 µg/m³. About 15.9% cases of total mortality, 0.7% cases of cardiovascular mortality, 0.2% cases of respiratory mortality, and 2% cases of hospital admissions for CVD in 2013 occurred at particulate matter concentrations >20 µg/m³. Moreover, in 2012, > 85% of the studied health effects were related to days with a PM10 concentration of < 400 µg/m³, and in 2013, about 99% of the studied health effects were related to days with a PM10 concentration of < 189 - 180 µg/m³.

Conclusions

According to the results obtained, the largest numbers of deaths and illnesses were due to the high average PM10 concentration or an increase in the number of days of exposure to this pollutant.

Background

Particulate matters have harmful effects on human health and can intensify mortality and disease.

Objectives

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the health impacts of particulate matter < 10 μ in diameter (PM10) on the inhabitants of Shiraz, one of the largest cities in southern Iran with a population of 1,500,000.

Materials and Methods

The AirQ2.2.3 model developed by the world health organization European centre for environment and health was used in this study. Excess cases of mortality, total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, respiratory mortality, and hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease (CVD) were calculated.

Results

The results of this study show that 25.3% cases of total mortality, 1.1% cases of cardiovascular mortality, 0.3% cases of respiratory mortality, and 3.3% cases of hospital admissions for CVD in 2012 occurred at particulate matter concentrations > 40 µg/m³. About 15.9% cases of total mortality, 0.7% cases of cardiovascular mortality, 0.2% cases of respiratory mortality, and 2% cases of hospital admissions for CVD in 2013 occurred at particulate matter concentrations >20 µg/m³. Moreover, in 2012, > 85% of the studied health effects were related to days with a PM10 concentration of < 400 µg/m³, and in 2013, about 99% of the studied health effects were related to days with a PM10 concentration of < 189 - 180 µg/m³.

Relative Risk;Incidence;Mortality Relative Risk;Incidence;Mortality http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=31015 Aezam Mohammadi Aezam Mohammadi Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Abooalfazl Azhdarpoor Abooalfazl Azhdarpoor Department of Environmental Health, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Environmental Health, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7137251001, Fax: +98-7137260225 Department of Environmental Health, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Environmental Health, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-7137251001, Fax: +98-7137260225 Abbas Shahsavani Abbas Shahsavani Department of Environmental Health, School of Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Environmental Health, School of Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Hamidreza Tabatabaee Hamidreza Tabatabaee Department of Epidemiology, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Epidemiology, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-26492 Safety Motivation and Work Pressure as Predictors of Occupational Accidents in the Petrochemical Industry Safety Motivation and Work Pressure as Predictors of Occupational Accidents in the Petrochemical Industry research-article research-article Conclusions

Safety motivation and work pressure are important predictors of occupational accident rate. Therefore, increasing safety motivation and reducing work pressure in high-risk jobs are effective ways in which organizations can decrease occupational accident rates.

Results

Both safety motivation and work pressure were significantly correlated with occupational accident rate (P < 0.0001). Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that both safety motivation and work pressure were significant predictors (R2 = 0.302, P < 0.0001).

Background

The best way to reduce occupational injury and accident rates seems to be to investigate the social and organizational factors influencing workplace safety.

Objectives

The present study examines relationships of safety motivation and work pressure with occupational accident rate among workers of Khorasan petrochemical company.

Patients and Methods

In this cross-sectional study, the population consisted of all line employees working in Khorasan petrochemical company (n = 1160). Stratified sampling was used to select 300 employees. They completed measures of safety motivation, perceived work pressure, and incident reporting rate. Regression analysis was performed by SPSS software in main stage and confirmatory factor analysis was performed by AMOS software in validation stage.

Conclusions

Safety motivation and work pressure are important predictors of occupational accident rate. Therefore, increasing safety motivation and reducing work pressure in high-risk jobs are effective ways in which organizations can decrease occupational accident rates.

Results

Both safety motivation and work pressure were significantly correlated with occupational accident rate (P < 0.0001). Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that both safety motivation and work pressure were significant predictors (R2 = 0.302, P < 0.0001).

Background

The best way to reduce occupational injury and accident rates seems to be to investigate the social and organizational factors influencing workplace safety.

Objectives

The present study examines relationships of safety motivation and work pressure with occupational accident rate among workers of Khorasan petrochemical company.

Patients and Methods

In this cross-sectional study, the population consisted of all line employees working in Khorasan petrochemical company (n = 1160). Stratified sampling was used to select 300 employees. They completed measures of safety motivation, perceived work pressure, and incident reporting rate. Regression analysis was performed by SPSS software in main stage and confirmatory factor analysis was performed by AMOS software in validation stage.

Accidents, Occupational;Motivation;Pressure;Safety;Work Accidents, Occupational;Motivation;Pressure;Safety;Work http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=26492 Tayebe Rahimi Pordanjani Tayebe Rahimi Pordanjani Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, University of Bojnord, Bojnord, IR Iran; Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, University of Bojnord, Bojnord, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5832284611, Fax: +98-5832284634 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, University of Bojnord, Bojnord, IR Iran; Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, University of Bojnord, Bojnord, IR Iran. Tel: +98-5832284611, Fax: +98-5832284634 Ali Mohamadzade Ebrahimi Ali Mohamadzade Ebrahimi Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, University of Bojnord, Bojnord, IR Iran Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, University of Bojnord, Bojnord, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-30782 Seatbelt Use and Related Factors Among Drivers Involved in Road Crashes in Southeast Iran Seatbelt Use and Related Factors Among Drivers Involved in Road Crashes in Southeast Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

The seatbelt wearing rate among the study participants was much lower than the 90% rate reported among Iranian drivers in 2010. Mandating seatbelt use, as in most countries, will be more effective if a combination of factors such as changes in vehicle design, road safety, and driver and passenger behavior are taken into account.

Background

Seatbelts are a relatively low-cost safety device that provides easy basic protection for occupants of 4-wheeled vehicles.

Objectives

This study investigates frequency of seatbelt use and its related factors among drivers involved in a vehicle crash.

Materials and Methods

In this cross-sectional study, all crash profiles recorded in a province from March 2010 to March 2011 were reviewed. Necessary information was extracted from crash reports in which at least one 4-wheeled vehicle was involved. Data were analyzed using binary and multinomial logistic regression.

Results

Of a total of 1427 motor vehicle crashes, a seatbelt was used by 58.2% of drivers. In the univariate analysis, the following were significantly associated with seatbelt use: driver age, education, and occupation along with front seat passenger's sex and seatbelt use, type and make of vehicle, speed, road surface condition, and type of road. In the multivariate model, the following remained significant: driver education, seatbelt use by front seat passenger, and type of road. Furthermore, a restraining seatbelt protected drivers from severe injury and death. Unbelted drivers were 7 and 17.4 times more likely to experience injury and death respectively than belted drivers.

Conclusions

The seatbelt wearing rate among the study participants was much lower than the 90% rate reported among Iranian drivers in 2010. Mandating seatbelt use, as in most countries, will be more effective if a combination of factors such as changes in vehicle design, road safety, and driver and passenger behavior are taken into account.

Background

Seatbelts are a relatively low-cost safety device that provides easy basic protection for occupants of 4-wheeled vehicles.

Objectives

This study investigates frequency of seatbelt use and its related factors among drivers involved in a vehicle crash.

Materials and Methods

In this cross-sectional study, all crash profiles recorded in a province from March 2010 to March 2011 were reviewed. Necessary information was extracted from crash reports in which at least one 4-wheeled vehicle was involved. Data were analyzed using binary and multinomial logistic regression.

Results

Of a total of 1427 motor vehicle crashes, a seatbelt was used by 58.2% of drivers. In the univariate analysis, the following were significantly associated with seatbelt use: driver age, education, and occupation along with front seat passenger's sex and seatbelt use, type and make of vehicle, speed, road surface condition, and type of road. In the multivariate model, the following remained significant: driver education, seatbelt use by front seat passenger, and type of road. Furthermore, a restraining seatbelt protected drivers from severe injury and death. Unbelted drivers were 7 and 17.4 times more likely to experience injury and death respectively than belted drivers.

Seat Belt;Traffic Accident;Injury Severity Score Seat Belt;Traffic Accident;Injury Severity Score http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=30782 Mahdi Mohammadi Mahdi Mohammadi Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Alireza Ansari Moghaddam Alireza Ansari Moghaddam Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran; Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9155412155 Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran; Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9155412155 Mahdieh Rad Mahdieh Rad Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Raheleh Hashemi Habybabady Raheleh Hashemi Habybabady Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Mohammad Ali Tabasi Mohammad Ali Tabasi Paramedical School, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Paramedical School, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-31077 Health Status and Life Situation of Street Children in Zahedan, Southeast of Iran Health Status and Life Situation of Street Children in Zahedan, Southeast of Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

The health status and life situation of street children in this region do not seem appropriate and earning money is the most important motivation to being a street child. Unlike violence, the tendency to substance abuse, especially cigarette smoking, was pretty high. On the other hand, the lower age of illicit drug abuse among these children in this study indicates a higher vulnerability of this group. However, the awareness and educational level of the parents is an important determinant in this regard.

Background

The children working in the streets are at risk of violence, sexual and substance abuse and infectious diseases. Few studies have been done in this field in Iran and around the world.

Objectives

This study aimed to assess the health status and life situation of street children to encourage and inform interventions and the future research agenda regarding these children in Iran.

Patients and Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted in southeast of Iran from January to April 2015. Based on postal map, the city was divided into five districts and 216 male street children were selected using snowball sampling. An unstructured questionnaire was provided by integrating eight previously used questionnaires in different studies with approved validity and reliability and filled with in-depth interview. Data were analyzed in Stata 12 software using independent t-test and chi-square test.

Results

The mean age of the subjects was 12.5 ± 3.2 years and 29.2% and 18.9% of them subsisted by vending and rubbish gathering, respectively. There was significant relation between fathers’ job and type of children’s activities (P = 0.024). The prevalence of smoking and history of alcohol consumption was 42.6% and 2%, respectively. The lowest mean age of initial use and also the most commonly used substance was for cigarette smoking. The mean age of children with illiterate parents that were using substances or had lost both their parents was lower than the mean age of the rest (P < 0.05). Only 38.6% of the children ate meals with their families and the rest ate their meals as snack.

Conclusions

The health status and life situation of street children in this region do not seem appropriate and earning money is the most important motivation to being a street child. Unlike violence, the tendency to substance abuse, especially cigarette smoking, was pretty high. On the other hand, the lower age of illicit drug abuse among these children in this study indicates a higher vulnerability of this group. However, the awareness and educational level of the parents is an important determinant in this regard.

Background

The children working in the streets are at risk of violence, sexual and substance abuse and infectious diseases. Few studies have been done in this field in Iran and around the world.

Objectives

This study aimed to assess the health status and life situation of street children to encourage and inform interventions and the future research agenda regarding these children in Iran.

Patients and Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted in southeast of Iran from January to April 2015. Based on postal map, the city was divided into five districts and 216 male street children were selected using snowball sampling. An unstructured questionnaire was provided by integrating eight previously used questionnaires in different studies with approved validity and reliability and filled with in-depth interview. Data were analyzed in Stata 12 software using independent t-test and chi-square test.

Results

The mean age of the subjects was 12.5 ± 3.2 years and 29.2% and 18.9% of them subsisted by vending and rubbish gathering, respectively. There was significant relation between fathers’ job and type of children’s activities (P = 0.024). The prevalence of smoking and history of alcohol consumption was 42.6% and 2%, respectively. The lowest mean age of initial use and also the most commonly used substance was for cigarette smoking. The mean age of children with illiterate parents that were using substances or had lost both their parents was lower than the mean age of the rest (P < 0.05). Only 38.6% of the children ate meals with their families and the rest ate their meals as snack.

Health Status;Life Situation;Street Children;Zahedan Health Status;Life Situation;Street Children;Zahedan http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=31077 Hossein Ansari Hossein Ansari Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Alireza Ansari Moghaddam Alireza Ansari Moghaddam Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran; Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9155412155, Fax: +98-5433425375 Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran; Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9155412155, Fax: +98-5433425375 Mahdi Mohammadi Mahdi Mohammadi Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Mostafa Peyvand Mostafa Peyvand Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Abdorrahman Gorgij Abdorrahman Gorgij Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Fariba Shahraki Sanavi Fariba Shahraki Sanavi Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-29507 Ergonomics Intervention to Reduce Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in a Lead Mine Ergonomics Intervention to Reduce Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in a Lead Mine research-article research-article Conclusions

Consistent reductions were observed for all WMSDs disorders at the ninth month of the follow-up. It can be inferred that the use of practical and low-cost methods of engineering and administrative interventions together and monitoring the proper implementation of these interventions during a long time may achieve desired results in reducing musculoskeletal disorders in small scale and poor industries in developing countries.

Results

The results revealed that the highest prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was reported in lower back (57.5%) and knees (50%) during the 12 months prior to the study. After ergonomics interventions, significant reductions in WMSDs were observed at the time of follow-up. According to Cochran’s test, significant differences between the pre, four and nine months after the intervention in lower back and knee were observed (P < 0.005).

Patients and Methods

This follow-up and interventional study was carried out in a lead mine. Forty persons participated in this study. The Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was used to study the prevalence of WMSDs and the quick exposure check (QEC) method was used to assess the physical exposure to risks. Ultimately, data was analyzed using McNamar’s and Cochran’s tests by SPSS version 11 software.

Background

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are one of the most important factors for occupational injuries and disabilities, with the back injuries being the most common work-related injuries in different industries in many developing countries.

Objectives

The objectives of the present study were determination of the prevalence of WMSDs symptoms, identification of major risk factors associated with WMSDs symptoms and ergonomics interventions to reduce these disorders.

Conclusions

Consistent reductions were observed for all WMSDs disorders at the ninth month of the follow-up. It can be inferred that the use of practical and low-cost methods of engineering and administrative interventions together and monitoring the proper implementation of these interventions during a long time may achieve desired results in reducing musculoskeletal disorders in small scale and poor industries in developing countries.

Results

The results revealed that the highest prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was reported in lower back (57.5%) and knees (50%) during the 12 months prior to the study. After ergonomics interventions, significant reductions in WMSDs were observed at the time of follow-up. According to Cochran’s test, significant differences between the pre, four and nine months after the intervention in lower back and knee were observed (P < 0.005).

Patients and Methods

This follow-up and interventional study was carried out in a lead mine. Forty persons participated in this study. The Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was used to study the prevalence of WMSDs and the quick exposure check (QEC) method was used to assess the physical exposure to risks. Ultimately, data was analyzed using McNamar’s and Cochran’s tests by SPSS version 11 software.

Background

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are one of the most important factors for occupational injuries and disabilities, with the back injuries being the most common work-related injuries in different industries in many developing countries.

Objectives

The objectives of the present study were determination of the prevalence of WMSDs symptoms, identification of major risk factors associated with WMSDs symptoms and ergonomics interventions to reduce these disorders.

Developing Countries;Intervention Studies;Musculoskeletal Diseases;Mining Developing Countries;Intervention Studies;Musculoskeletal Diseases;Mining http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=29507 Mohammad Jahangiri Mohammad Jahangiri Department of Occupational Hygiene, Collage of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Department of Occupational Hygiene, Collage of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, IR Iran Seyyed Ali Moussavi Najarkola Seyyed Ali Moussavi Najarkola Occupational and Environmental Health Research Center (OEHRC), Iranian Petroleum Industry Health Research Institute (IPIHRI), Petroleum Industry Health Organization (PIHO), Tehran, IR Iran Occupational and Environmental Health Research Center (OEHRC), Iranian Petroleum Industry Health Research Institute (IPIHRI), Petroleum Industry Health Organization (PIHO), Tehran, IR Iran Tahere Gholami Tahere Gholami Department of Hygiene, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, IR Iran Department of Hygiene, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, IR Iran Hassan Mohammadpour Hassan Mohammadpour Department of Occupational Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Department of Occupational Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Abbas Jahangiri Abbas Jahangiri Department of Industrial Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak, IR Iran Department of Industrial Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, Arak, IR Iran Ghasem Hesam Ghasem Hesam Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, IR Iran Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, IR Iran Mahdi Jalali Mahdi Jalali Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, IR Iran; Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9159292199 Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, IR Iran; Department of Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9159292199
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-21808 Antimicrobial Effect of Cinnamon Essential Oil Against Escherichia Coli and Staphylococcus aureus Antimicrobial Effect of Cinnamon Essential Oil Against <italic>Escherichia Coli</italic> and <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> research-article research-article Conclusions

The present study showed that cinnamon essential oil when used in combination with nisin, monolaurin or EDTA demonstrated stronger antimicrobial effect against foodborne pathogens than when used alone.

Background

Various studies have been conducted to determine the effects of essential oils and other natural antimicrobials on foodborne pathogens in culture media.

Objectives

The present study aimed to determine the antibacterial effects of cinnamon essential oil, monolaurin, nisin, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) alone and in combination, in culture media.

Materials and Methods

Cinnamon essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and the major component was identified as cinnamaldehyde. Broth microdilution assay and agar disk diffusion method were used to evaluate the antibacterial effect of cinnamon essential oil, monolaurin, nisin, and EDTA alone and in combination against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

Results

The MIC of cinnamon essential oil, monolaurin, nisin, and EDTA for S. aureus was 3125.00, > 500.00, > 125.00, and > 250.00 µg/mL, respectively, while the MIC of the aforementioned materials for E. coli was 780.00, 31.25, 15.60, and 250.00 µg/mL. In the present study, S. aureus was found to be more sensitive than E. coli and monolaurin and nisin showed the lowest MIC for E. coli. Increased antimicrobial effect was observed when cinnamon essential oil was used in combination with nisin, monolaurin, and EDTA.

Conclusions

The present study showed that cinnamon essential oil when used in combination with nisin, monolaurin or EDTA demonstrated stronger antimicrobial effect against foodborne pathogens than when used alone.

Background

Various studies have been conducted to determine the effects of essential oils and other natural antimicrobials on foodborne pathogens in culture media.

Objectives

The present study aimed to determine the antibacterial effects of cinnamon essential oil, monolaurin, nisin, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) alone and in combination, in culture media.

Materials and Methods

Cinnamon essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and the major component was identified as cinnamaldehyde. Broth microdilution assay and agar disk diffusion method were used to evaluate the antibacterial effect of cinnamon essential oil, monolaurin, nisin, and EDTA alone and in combination against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

Results

The MIC of cinnamon essential oil, monolaurin, nisin, and EDTA for S. aureus was 3125.00, > 500.00, > 125.00, and > 250.00 µg/mL, respectively, while the MIC of the aforementioned materials for E. coli was 780.00, 31.25, 15.60, and 250.00 µg/mL. In the present study, S. aureus was found to be more sensitive than E. coli and monolaurin and nisin showed the lowest MIC for E. coli. Increased antimicrobial effect was observed when cinnamon essential oil was used in combination with nisin, monolaurin, and EDTA.

Nisin;Monolaurin;Antibacterial Effect;Cinnamon Essential Oil;EDTA Nisin;Monolaurin;Antibacterial Effect;Cinnamon Essential Oil;EDTA http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=21808 Mojtaba Raeisi Mojtaba Raeisi Department of Public Health, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran; Cereal Health Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran; Department of Public Health, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9111753395, Fax: +98-1714423630 Department of Public Health, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran; Cereal Health Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran; Department of Public Health, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9111753395, Fax: +98-1714423630 Hossein Tajik Hossein Tajik Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, IR Iran Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, IR Iran Arman Yarahmadi Arman Yarahmadi Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, IR Iran Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, IR Iran Sirvan Sanginabadi Sirvan Sanginabadi Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, IR Iran Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, IR Iran