Health Scope Health Scope Health Scope http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools 2251-8959 2251-9513 10.5812/jhealthscope. en jalali 2019 8 21 gregorian 2019 8 21 2 1
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-10642 Health Promotion Thinking, Interpretation and Implementation in Iran: Capacities, and the Way Forward Health Promotion Thinking, Interpretation and Implementation in Iran: Capacities, and the Way Forward editorial editorial Health Promotion;Iran Health Promotion;Iran 1 3 http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=10642 Nastaran Keshavarz Nastaran Keshavarz School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Tel: +98-9124153782, Fax: +98-5412420014 School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Tel: +98-9124153782, Fax: +98-5412420014
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-9840 Insecticide Resistance in Insect Vectors of Disease with Special Reference to Mosquitoes: A Potential Threat to Global Public Health Insecticide Resistance in Insect Vectors of Disease with Special Reference to Mosquitoes: A Potential Threat to Global Public Health review-article review-article Context

Arthropod-borne diseases are remaining as a major public health issue in the resource-constrained settings. Mosquitoes are closely associated with mankind since time immemorial and play an important role in the transmission of many dreadful diseases like malaria, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, dengue and yellow fever. Over the decades, vector control is an important element to minimize the vector-borne disease burden worldwide and in fact, it heavily relies upon synthetic insecticides as a mainstay. However the overuse and misuse of insecticides have led to the emergence of resistance, which undermines the potentiality of vector control.

Evidence Acquisition

In order to pursue effective research pertained to this issue, a detailed search on Scopus, Medline, Google Scholar and academic premier databases has been conducted between the time periods of 1955 and 2012.

Results

Over the past six decades, insecticides are serving as one of the important arsenals in the fight against vector-borne diseases to save hundreds of millions of lives. Consequently, in the last decade we have attained a remarkable success to combat with many diseases particularly malaria due to the combined effect of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Currently, malaria mortality rates have drastically fallen by more than 25% globally, 33% in sub-Saharan Africa and over a million lives have been saved attributable to massive scale-up of LLINs and IRS. Since, both LLINs and IRS are cost-effective and robust form of interventions; they are serving as a central pillar in the National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs) of malaria endemic countries. Nevertheless, LLINs are easy-to-deliver, most economical and practical even in the resource-poor settings, where implementation of IRS is not feasible. The heavy reliance, recurrent and inappropriate insecticide applications are key sources for resistance which is a potential threat to the global public health. Therefore, it has to be addressed immediately to sustain the recent success of vector control, unless otherwise it would become uncertain.

Conclusions

Though, development of resistance is an evolutionary phenomenon, it can be tackled judiciously by implementing appropriate and comprehensive resistance monitoring and management strategies within the framework of integrated vector management. This scrutiny recommends the following measures; (i) identification of effective novel tools for monitoring and evaluation, (ii) searching for alternative interventions to minimize the further resistance evolution as well as to preserve the efficiency of existing insecticides, (iii) exploration of next generation vector control tools in terms of nets and new classes of non-pyrethroid insecticide formulation with new mode of action, (iv) building partnership by bringing together the people actively engaged in the vector control, like public health experts, policy-makers, researchers, medical entomologists and insecticide manufacturers, could ideally pave the way to collectively address the current debacle in the near future.

Context

Arthropod-borne diseases are remaining as a major public health issue in the resource-constrained settings. Mosquitoes are closely associated with mankind since time immemorial and play an important role in the transmission of many dreadful diseases like malaria, filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, dengue and yellow fever. Over the decades, vector control is an important element to minimize the vector-borne disease burden worldwide and in fact, it heavily relies upon synthetic insecticides as a mainstay. However the overuse and misuse of insecticides have led to the emergence of resistance, which undermines the potentiality of vector control.

Evidence Acquisition

In order to pursue effective research pertained to this issue, a detailed search on Scopus, Medline, Google Scholar and academic premier databases has been conducted between the time periods of 1955 and 2012.

Results

Over the past six decades, insecticides are serving as one of the important arsenals in the fight against vector-borne diseases to save hundreds of millions of lives. Consequently, in the last decade we have attained a remarkable success to combat with many diseases particularly malaria due to the combined effect of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Currently, malaria mortality rates have drastically fallen by more than 25% globally, 33% in sub-Saharan Africa and over a million lives have been saved attributable to massive scale-up of LLINs and IRS. Since, both LLINs and IRS are cost-effective and robust form of interventions; they are serving as a central pillar in the National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs) of malaria endemic countries. Nevertheless, LLINs are easy-to-deliver, most economical and practical even in the resource-poor settings, where implementation of IRS is not feasible. The heavy reliance, recurrent and inappropriate insecticide applications are key sources for resistance which is a potential threat to the global public health. Therefore, it has to be addressed immediately to sustain the recent success of vector control, unless otherwise it would become uncertain.

Conclusions

Though, development of resistance is an evolutionary phenomenon, it can be tackled judiciously by implementing appropriate and comprehensive resistance monitoring and management strategies within the framework of integrated vector management. This scrutiny recommends the following measures; (i) identification of effective novel tools for monitoring and evaluation, (ii) searching for alternative interventions to minimize the further resistance evolution as well as to preserve the efficiency of existing insecticides, (iii) exploration of next generation vector control tools in terms of nets and new classes of non-pyrethroid insecticide formulation with new mode of action, (iv) building partnership by bringing together the people actively engaged in the vector control, like public health experts, policy-makers, researchers, medical entomologists and insecticide manufacturers, could ideally pave the way to collectively address the current debacle in the near future.

Pest Control;Disease Vectors;Mosquito Control;Insecticide Resistance Pest Control;Disease Vectors;Mosquito Control;Insecticide Resistance 4 18 http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=9840 Kaliyaperumal Karunamoorthi Kaliyaperumal Karunamoorthi Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Unit of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University , India +251-93547847, k_karunamoorthi@yahoo.com; Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India; Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Unit of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University , India +251-93547847, k_karunamoorthi@yahoo.com Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Unit of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University , India +251-93547847, k_karunamoorthi@yahoo.com; Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India; Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Unit of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University , India +251-93547847, k_karunamoorthi@yahoo.com Shanmugavelu Sabesan Shanmugavelu Sabesan Vector Control Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Indira Nagar, India Vector Control Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Indira Nagar, India
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-9885 Maternal Knowledge and Practice Regarding Childhood Diarrhea and Diet in Zahedan, Iran Maternal Knowledge and Practice Regarding Childhood Diarrhea and Diet in Zahedan, Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

Based on the low level of knowledge and practice among the study population, the usual practice of focusing on a target group would be necessary. Our findings indicated a serious lack of competence in dealing with this problem.

Results

The findings indicated that knowledge of the majority of mothers (64.3%) regarding diarrhea and diet was moderate and only 3.7% had good knowledge. The majority of mothers (56%) had a moderate practicing knowledge of diarrhea and diet and only 2.3% had a good practice.

Background

Diarrhea infection has been established as one of the major etiologies and risk factors of malnutrition in children.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to assess the maternal knowledge, attitude and practices when treating diarrhea in their children less than 5 years old in the Zahedan, south-east province of Iran.

Materials and Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted in urban health centers in Zahedan. Three hundred mothers who had less than five years old children and had been referred to the health centers for six months duration had been included. The questions were about demographic characteristics, knowledge and practice regarding childhood diarrhea, and had been designed to obtain information through an interview.

Conclusions

Based on the low level of knowledge and practice among the study population, the usual practice of focusing on a target group would be necessary. Our findings indicated a serious lack of competence in dealing with this problem.

Results

The findings indicated that knowledge of the majority of mothers (64.3%) regarding diarrhea and diet was moderate and only 3.7% had good knowledge. The majority of mothers (56%) had a moderate practicing knowledge of diarrhea and diet and only 2.3% had a good practice.

Background

Diarrhea infection has been established as one of the major etiologies and risk factors of malnutrition in children.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to assess the maternal knowledge, attitude and practices when treating diarrhea in their children less than 5 years old in the Zahedan, south-east province of Iran.

Materials and Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted in urban health centers in Zahedan. Three hundred mothers who had less than five years old children and had been referred to the health centers for six months duration had been included. The questions were about demographic characteristics, knowledge and practice regarding childhood diarrhea, and had been designed to obtain information through an interview.

Diarrhea;Maternal Knowledge;Practice;Diet Diarrhea;Maternal Knowledge;Practice;Diet 19 24 http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=9885 Manijeh Khalili Manijeh Khalili Children and Adolescent Health Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran; Children and Adolescent Health Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9112120205, Fax: +98-5413411252 Children and Adolescent Health Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran; Children and Adolescent Health Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9112120205, Fax: +98-5413411252 Maryam Mirshahi Maryam Mirshahi Sport Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Sport Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Amin Zarghami Amin Zarghami Student Research Committee, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran Student Research Committee, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, IR Iran Mohsen Rajabnia Mohsen Rajabnia Fatemeh Farahmand Fatemeh Farahmand Children’s Medical Center, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Children’s Medical Center, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-9630 Pyrocatechol Removal From Aqueous Solutions by Using Azolla Filiculoides Pyrocatechol Removal From Aqueous Solutions by Using Azolla Filiculoides research-article research-article Background

Pyrocatechol or 1, 2-dihydroxybenzene, or 2-hydroxyphenol is considered as apriority pollutant since it is harmful to organisms at low concentrations, and has been classified as hazardous pollutants.

Objectives

The objective of this study was to examine whether Azolla filiculoides, is able to remove Pyrocatechol from aqueous solutions.

Materials and Methods

This study is an experimental research. In this study, the aquatic fern Azolla with different biomass (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 g) has been cultured in solutionwhichwas contained 5, 10, 25, and 50 ppm Pyrocatechol. Each exam repeated twice. Samples were collected every 2 days from all of containers. The analytical determination of Pyrocatechol was performed by using DR4000 spectrophotometer by analyzing the color resulting with the wavelength of 600nm.

Results

The results showed that Azolla has high ability to remove Pyrocatechol from aqueous solutions. The Pyrocatechol removal was 60-90%. The removal efficiency wasincreasing with decreasing Pyrocatechol concentration, and increasing biomass amount, and vice versa. The removal efficiency was more than 90% when Pyrocatechol concentration was 5 ppm, and amount of biomass was 0.9 gr.

Conclusions

It is concluded that Azolla is able to accumulate and remove Pyrocatechol from the aqueous solutions. Since conventional methods of Pyrocatechol removal need high cost and energy, Phytoremediation by Azolla as a natural treatment system can decrease those issues, and it can be a useful and beneficial method for theremoval of Pyrocatechol.

Background

Pyrocatechol or 1, 2-dihydroxybenzene, or 2-hydroxyphenol is considered as apriority pollutant since it is harmful to organisms at low concentrations, and has been classified as hazardous pollutants.

Objectives

The objective of this study was to examine whether Azolla filiculoides, is able to remove Pyrocatechol from aqueous solutions.

Materials and Methods

This study is an experimental research. In this study, the aquatic fern Azolla with different biomass (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 g) has been cultured in solutionwhichwas contained 5, 10, 25, and 50 ppm Pyrocatechol. Each exam repeated twice. Samples were collected every 2 days from all of containers. The analytical determination of Pyrocatechol was performed by using DR4000 spectrophotometer by analyzing the color resulting with the wavelength of 600nm.

Results

The results showed that Azolla has high ability to remove Pyrocatechol from aqueous solutions. The Pyrocatechol removal was 60-90%. The removal efficiency wasincreasing with decreasing Pyrocatechol concentration, and increasing biomass amount, and vice versa. The removal efficiency was more than 90% when Pyrocatechol concentration was 5 ppm, and amount of biomass was 0.9 gr.

Conclusions

It is concluded that Azolla is able to accumulate and remove Pyrocatechol from the aqueous solutions. Since conventional methods of Pyrocatechol removal need high cost and energy, Phytoremediation by Azolla as a natural treatment system can decrease those issues, and it can be a useful and beneficial method for theremoval of Pyrocatechol.

Catechol;Industrial Waste;Phytoremediation Catechol;Industrial Waste;Phytoremediation 25 30 http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=9630 Mohammad Ali Zazouli Mohammad Ali Zazouli Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health and Health Sciences Research Center,Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, IR Iran Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health and Health Sciences Research Center,Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, IR Iran Davoud Balarak Davoud Balarak Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health and Health Sciences Research Center,Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, IR Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health and Health Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, IR Iran. Tel: +98-151354308-8, Fax: +98-1513543237 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health and Health Sciences Research Center,Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, IR Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health and Health Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, IR Iran. Tel: +98-151354308-8, Fax: +98-1513543237 Yusef Mahdavi Yusef Mahdavi Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health and Health Sciences Research Center,Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, IR Iran Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health and Health Sciences Research Center,Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-9828 Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Approach for Predicting Cu Concentration in Drinking Water of Chahnimeh1 Reservoir in Sistan-Balochistan, Iran Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Approach for Predicting Cu Concentration in Drinking Water of Chahnimeh1 Reservoir in Sistan-Balochistan, Iran research-article research-article Conclusions

As we can see the ANN outputs values are very close to actual Cu concentration, so indicating that predicted values are accurate and the network design is proper and the input variables well suitable for the prediction of Cu concentration.

Background

Access to safe drinking water is one of the basic human rights and essential for healthy life. Concerns about the effects of copper on human health have led to numerous guidelines and regulations limiting its concentrations in water.

Objectives

The major goal of this study is to demonstrate artificial neural network model of the Chahnimeh1 reservoir water quality (Heavy metal concentration) and show the potential of the ANN for producing models capable of efficient forecasting of Cu concentration.

Materials and Methods

Water samples were collected from Chahnimeh1 reservoir which was the most important source of drinking water in Sistan-balochistan and analyzed for physical quality parameters such as: EC (electric conductivity), TDS(total dissolved solids), T(temperature), pH and heavy metal (Cu) concentration using standard methods. In this study, a three-layer artificial neural network (ANN) model was investigated to predict the Cu concentration in the water of Chahnimeh1 reservoir. The input variables are electric conductivity, total dissolved solids, temperature and pH, while the Cu concentration in water is the output. We applied The Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) algorithm to train ANN.

Results

According to the ANN outputs, hidden layer with 7 neurons had the best performance for predicting Cu concentration. Evaluation indexes including MSE and R in this article were obtained as 0.00008 and 0.9346; 0.00019 and 0.8612; 0.00014 and 0.9372 for training, validation and testing date sets respectively.

Conclusions

As we can see the ANN outputs values are very close to actual Cu concentration, so indicating that predicted values are accurate and the network design is proper and the input variables well suitable for the prediction of Cu concentration.

Background

Access to safe drinking water is one of the basic human rights and essential for healthy life. Concerns about the effects of copper on human health have led to numerous guidelines and regulations limiting its concentrations in water.

Objectives

The major goal of this study is to demonstrate artificial neural network model of the Chahnimeh1 reservoir water quality (Heavy metal concentration) and show the potential of the ANN for producing models capable of efficient forecasting of Cu concentration.

Materials and Methods

Water samples were collected from Chahnimeh1 reservoir which was the most important source of drinking water in Sistan-balochistan and analyzed for physical quality parameters such as: EC (electric conductivity), TDS(total dissolved solids), T(temperature), pH and heavy metal (Cu) concentration using standard methods. In this study, a three-layer artificial neural network (ANN) model was investigated to predict the Cu concentration in the water of Chahnimeh1 reservoir. The input variables are electric conductivity, total dissolved solids, temperature and pH, while the Cu concentration in water is the output. We applied The Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) algorithm to train ANN.

Results

According to the ANN outputs, hidden layer with 7 neurons had the best performance for predicting Cu concentration. Evaluation indexes including MSE and R in this article were obtained as 0.00008 and 0.9346; 0.00019 and 0.8612; 0.00014 and 0.9372 for training, validation and testing date sets respectively.

Neural Networks;Drinking Water;Iran Neural Networks;Drinking Water;Iran 31 38 http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=9828 Alireza Shakeri Abdolmaleki Alireza Shakeri Abdolmaleki Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Soil and Water, University of Zabol, Zabol, IR Iran Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Soil and Water, University of Zabol, Zabol, IR Iran Ahmad Gholamalizadeh Ahangar Ahmad Gholamalizadeh Ahangar Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Soil and Water, University of Zabol, Zabol, IR Iran; Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Soil and Water, University of Zabol, Zabol, IR Iran. Tel: +98-542 2240748, Fax: +98-542 2232501 Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Soil and Water, University of Zabol, Zabol, IR Iran; Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Soil and Water, University of Zabol, Zabol, IR Iran. Tel: +98-542 2240748, Fax: +98-542 2232501 Jaber Soltani Jaber Soltani Department of Water Engineering, Abureyhan Campus, University of Tehran,Tehran, Ir Iran Department of Water Engineering, Abureyhan Campus, University of Tehran,Tehran, Ir Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-7710 Removal of 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2, 4-D) From Aqueous Environments Using Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Removal of 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2, 4-D) From Aqueous Environments Using Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes research-article research-article Conclusions

According to achieved results, it was defined that SWCNTs is a quite effective adsorbent in removal of 2, 4-D from aqueous environments.

Results

Maximum adsorption capacity of the SWCNTs was 979.6 mg/g at pH5, contact time 45 min, initial concentration of 5000 µg/L, and 23 ± 2 ◦C temperatures, when 97.96% of 2, 4-D herbicide were removed. The adsorption equilibriums were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. It was found that the data fitted to Langmuir (R2 = 0.9987) better than Freundlich (R2 = 0.9727) model.

Background

2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) is a widely used herbicide known to be moderately toxic. Extensive use and poor biodegradability of 2, 4-D has resulted in its ubiquitous presence in the environment, and has led to contamination of surface and ground waters.

Objectives

At present study, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were used for the sorption of 2, 4-D from aqueous solutions.

Materials and Methods

The effect of various operating parameters such as initial concentration of 2, 4-D, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and pH were investigated. Equilibrium isotherms were used to identify the possible mechanism of the adsorption process.

Conclusions

According to achieved results, it was defined that SWCNTs is a quite effective adsorbent in removal of 2, 4-D from aqueous environments.

Results

Maximum adsorption capacity of the SWCNTs was 979.6 mg/g at pH5, contact time 45 min, initial concentration of 5000 µg/L, and 23 ± 2 ◦C temperatures, when 97.96% of 2, 4-D herbicide were removed. The adsorption equilibriums were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. It was found that the data fitted to Langmuir (R2 = 0.9987) better than Freundlich (R2 = 0.9727) model.

Background

2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) is a widely used herbicide known to be moderately toxic. Extensive use and poor biodegradability of 2, 4-D has resulted in its ubiquitous presence in the environment, and has led to contamination of surface and ground waters.

Objectives

At present study, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were used for the sorption of 2, 4-D from aqueous solutions.

Materials and Methods

The effect of various operating parameters such as initial concentration of 2, 4-D, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and pH were investigated. Equilibrium isotherms were used to identify the possible mechanism of the adsorption process.

2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid;Adsorption;Nanotubes;Carbon 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid;Adsorption;Nanotubes;Carbon 39 46 http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=7710 Edris Bazrafshan Edris Bazrafshan Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Ferdos Kord Mostafapour Ferdos Kord Mostafapour Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Hamed Faridi Hamed Faridi Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran; Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9177009427, Fax: +98-5412425375 Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran; Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9177009427, Fax: +98-5412425375 Mahdi Farzadkia Mahdi Farzadkia School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Shahnaz Sargazi Shahnaz Sargazi Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Ali Sohrabi Ali Sohrabi Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-9343 Association Between A561C Polymorphism of E-Selectin Gene and Coronary Arterial Disease in Southeastern Iranian Population Association Between A561C Polymorphism of E-Selectin Gene and Coronary Arterial Disease in Southeastern Iranian Population research-article research-article Results

The prevalence’s of AA, AC and CC genotypes were 55.2%, 24.1% and 20.7% in CAD patients and 51.6%, 40.9% and 7.5% in the control subjects, respectively. The frequencies of the C allele were significantly higher in CAD patients compared with control groups (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between the C allele and the risk of CAD (OR = 1.61, 95%CI = 1.03-2.51).

Conclusions

Our results displayed that presence of C allele at position 561 E-selection gene is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis disease in the southeastern Iranian population. This polymorphism may be able to affect leukocyte-endothelial interactions, which may account for the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

Objectives

The present research aimed to evaluate A561C polymorphism of the E-selectin gene in patients with coronary arterial diseases (CAD).

Materials and Methods

Eighty seven CAD patients and 93 age- and sex-matched control subjects were enrolled in this research. The polymorphism of A561C in the E-selectin gene was defined by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).

Background

Numerous factors including genetic factors play a role in pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis. It has been reported that polymorphisms of genes encoding adhesion molecules are associated with atherosclerosis.

Results

The prevalence’s of AA, AC and CC genotypes were 55.2%, 24.1% and 20.7% in CAD patients and 51.6%, 40.9% and 7.5% in the control subjects, respectively. The frequencies of the C allele were significantly higher in CAD patients compared with control groups (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between the C allele and the risk of CAD (OR = 1.61, 95%CI = 1.03-2.51).

Conclusions

Our results displayed that presence of C allele at position 561 E-selection gene is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis disease in the southeastern Iranian population. This polymorphism may be able to affect leukocyte-endothelial interactions, which may account for the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

Objectives

The present research aimed to evaluate A561C polymorphism of the E-selectin gene in patients with coronary arterial diseases (CAD).

Materials and Methods

Eighty seven CAD patients and 93 age- and sex-matched control subjects were enrolled in this research. The polymorphism of A561C in the E-selectin gene was defined by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).

Background

Numerous factors including genetic factors play a role in pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis. It has been reported that polymorphisms of genes encoding adhesion molecules are associated with atherosclerosis.

Coronary Artery Disease;E-Selectin;Polymorphism, Genetic Coronary Artery Disease;E-Selectin;Polymorphism, Genetic 47 51 http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=9343 Alireza Nakhaee Alireza Nakhaee Ge|mw|mwnunofmolmo}oa~ Rmgiwoisww|esciooldovaummo}non [miomcolunigzwm}{t,mwgiool gimogmsine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9153418077, alireza_nakhaee@yahoo.com; Ge|mw|mwnunofmolmo}oa~ Rmgiwoisww|esciooldovaummo}non [miomcolunigzwm}{t,mwgiool gimogmsine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9153418077, alireza_nakhaee@yahoo.com Ge|mw|mwnunofmolmo}oa~ Rmgiwoisww|esciooldovaummo}non [miomcolunigzwm}{t,mwgiool gimogmsine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9153418077, alireza_nakhaee@yahoo.com; Ge|mw|mwnunofmolmo}oa~ Rmgiwoisww|esciooldovaummo}non [miomcolunigzwm}{t,mwgiool gimogmsine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9153418077, alireza_nakhaee@yahoo.com Masoumeh Afzali Masoumeh Afzali Ge|mw|mwnunofmolmo}oa~ Rmgiwoisww|esciooldovaummo}non [miomcolunigzwm}{t,mwgiool gimogmsine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9153418077, alireza_nakhaee@yahoo.com Ge|mw|mwnunofmolmo}oa~ Rmgiwoisww|esciooldovaummo}non [miomcolunigzwm}{t,mwgiool gimogmsine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9153418077, alireza_nakhaee@yahoo.com Seyed Peyman Tabatabaei Seyed Peyman Tabatabaei Department of Cardiology, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Department of Cardiology, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Kouroush Tirgar Fakheri Kouroush Tirgar Fakheri Department of Anesthesia, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Department of Anesthesia, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Mohammad Hashemi Mohammad Hashemi Ge|mw|mwnunofmolmo}oa~ Rmgiwoisww|esciooldovaummo}non [miomcolunigzwm}{t,mwgiool gimogmsine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9153418077, alireza_nakhaee@yahoo.com Ge|mw|mwnunofmolmo}oa~ Rmgiwoisww|esciooldovaummo}non [miomcolunigzwm}{t,mwgiool gimogmsine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9153418077, alireza_nakhaee@yahoo.com
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-10041 Protective Effect of Microporous Natural Clinoptilolite on Lead-Induced Learning and Memory Impairment in Rats Protective Effect of Microporous Natural Clinoptilolite on Lead-Induced Learning and Memory Impairment in Rats research-article research-article Background

Lead poisoning impairs memory and learning.

Objectives

The protective effect of natural zeolite clinoptilolite on memory and learning impairment in rats exposed to lead acetate was investigated.

Materials and Methods

60 male Wistar rats in six groups treated for 2 months with diets contained different ratios of natural zeolite(i.e. 5% or 12.5%), and %0.2 lead acetate (LA) concentrations. behavioral test was evaluated by passive avoidance learning method in shuttle box at 6, 12, 24, 48 hours, and one week after the shock test.

Results

digestive exposure with 0.2% lead acetate in the presence of zeolite additive had no effect on the rats’ memory performance (P < 0.05). Adding 5 and 12.5%w/w of natural zeolite to the rats’ feed improved short-term, medium-term, and long-term memory performance (P < 0.05) compared to the control group.

Conclusion

observed improvement in memory function can be considered in part as the indirect effects of cation exchange or adsorption property of zeolites.

Background

Lead poisoning impairs memory and learning.

Objectives

The protective effect of natural zeolite clinoptilolite on memory and learning impairment in rats exposed to lead acetate was investigated.

Materials and Methods

60 male Wistar rats in six groups treated for 2 months with diets contained different ratios of natural zeolite(i.e. 5% or 12.5%), and %0.2 lead acetate (LA) concentrations. behavioral test was evaluated by passive avoidance learning method in shuttle box at 6, 12, 24, 48 hours, and one week after the shock test.

Results

digestive exposure with 0.2% lead acetate in the presence of zeolite additive had no effect on the rats’ memory performance (P < 0.05). Adding 5 and 12.5%w/w of natural zeolite to the rats’ feed improved short-term, medium-term, and long-term memory performance (P < 0.05) compared to the control group.

Conclusion

observed improvement in memory function can be considered in part as the indirect effects of cation exchange or adsorption property of zeolites.

Lead Poisoning;Zeolites;Clinoptilolite;Rats Lead Poisoning;Zeolites;Clinoptilolite;Rats 52 57 http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=10041 Ahmad Nikpey Ahmad Nikpey Department of Occupational Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-09126820763, nikpey@gmail.com; Department of Occupational Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-09126820763, nikpey@gmail.com Department of Occupational Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-09126820763, nikpey@gmail.com; Department of Occupational Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-09126820763, nikpey@gmail.com Hossein Kazemian Hossein Kazemian Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Western University (UWO), London, Ontario, Canada Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Western University (UWO), London, Ontario, Canada Ali Safari-Varyani Ali Safari-Varyani Department of Occupational Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-09126820763, nikpey@gmail.com Department of Occupational Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-09126820763, nikpey@gmail.com Marjan Rezaie Marjan Rezaie Department of Occupational Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Department of Occupational Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Majid Sirati-Sabet Majid Sirati-Sabet Department of Biochemistry and Genetic, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Department of Biochemistry and Genetic, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-10353 Measles Epidemiology in Sistan and Baluchistan Province During April 2006-March 2011 Measles Epidemiology in Sistan and Baluchistan Province During April 2006-March 2011 brief-report brief-report Background

Measles is one of the main causes of death among children, especially in developing countries. Although over 30 years have passed since the availability of measles vaccine; it is still uncontrolled in many countries.In Iran the highest incidence of confirmed measles cases have occurred in Sistan and Baluchistan province.

Objectives

This study was conducted to determine demographic and epidemiological characteristics of measles cases in order to improve strategies to eliminate measles in this province.

Patients and Method

All suspected and confirmed measles cases from April 2006 until March 2011 were evaluated in this province.

Results

Overall 456 suspected cases of measles were reported. 19.7% of cases were reported clinically positive, and positive test ratio was 56%. During our study measles incidence rate had increasing trend. The most incidence cases have occurred in spring and summer and the most cases have occurred in 1-4 years age group. Chabahar city has had the most confirmed cases. About measles vaccination history, 56.4% of all reported cases never vaccinated before.

Conclusions

Improving vaccination coverage and more accurate control of the cold chain can reduce probable outbreaks of measles and also it is proposed to expand health services in the eastern border to health control of immigrants.

Background

Measles is one of the main causes of death among children, especially in developing countries. Although over 30 years have passed since the availability of measles vaccine; it is still uncontrolled in many countries.In Iran the highest incidence of confirmed measles cases have occurred in Sistan and Baluchistan province.

Objectives

This study was conducted to determine demographic and epidemiological characteristics of measles cases in order to improve strategies to eliminate measles in this province.

Patients and Method

All suspected and confirmed measles cases from April 2006 until March 2011 were evaluated in this province.

Results

Overall 456 suspected cases of measles were reported. 19.7% of cases were reported clinically positive, and positive test ratio was 56%. During our study measles incidence rate had increasing trend. The most incidence cases have occurred in spring and summer and the most cases have occurred in 1-4 years age group. Chabahar city has had the most confirmed cases. About measles vaccination history, 56.4% of all reported cases never vaccinated before.

Conclusions

Improving vaccination coverage and more accurate control of the cold chain can reduce probable outbreaks of measles and also it is proposed to expand health services in the eastern border to health control of immigrants.

Measles;Epidemiology;Vaccination Measles;Epidemiology;Vaccination 58 62 http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=10353 Jalil Nejati Jalil Nejati Department of Disease Control, Zahedan Health Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran Department of Disease Control, Zahedan Health Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran Narjes Sargolzaie Narjes Sargolzaie Department of Community Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Iran +98-9124353013, n_sargol@yahoo.com; Department of Community Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Iran +98-9124353013, n_sargol@yahoo.com Department of Community Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Iran +98-9124353013, n_sargol@yahoo.com; Department of Community Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Iran +98-9124353013, n_sargol@yahoo.com Malek Kiani Malek Kiani Department of Disease Control, Zahedan Health center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran Department of Disease Control, Zahedan Health center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran Monireh Mahjoob Monireh Mahjoob Rehabilitation School, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran Rehabilitation School, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran Abdorahim Hashemi Abdorahim Hashemi Department of Disease Control, Zahedan Health center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran Department of Disease Control, Zahedan Health center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran
en 10.17795/jhealthscope-10039 Why Breast Feeding is the Best Feeding? Why Breast Feeding is the Best Feeding? letter letter Breast Feeding;Environment;Benefits Breast Feeding;Environment;Benefits 63 4 http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=10039 Nursan Cinar Nursan Cinar University of Sakarya, School of Health Sciences, Esentepe Campos, Sakarya, Turkey; Sakarya University, School of Health Sciences, Esentepe Campus, 54187, Sakarya, Turkey. Tel.: +26-42956621, Fax: +26- 42956602 University of Sakarya, School of Health Sciences, Esentepe Campos, Sakarya, Turkey; Sakarya University, School of Health Sciences, Esentepe Campus, 54187, Sakarya, Turkey. Tel.: +26-42956621, Fax: +26- 42956602 Cemile Dede Cemile Dede Vocational School of Health Sciences, University of Sakarya, Esentepe Campos, Turkey Vocational School of Health Sciences, University of Sakarya, Esentepe Campos, Turkey