Health Scope Health Scope Health Scope http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools 2251-8959 2251-9513 10.5812/jhealthscope. en jalali 2019 8 21 gregorian 2019 8 21 1 2
en 10.5812/jhs.7253 Health Scope in Iran: The Way Forward Health Scope in Iran: The Way Forward editorial editorial Health;Policy Making;Iran Health;Policy Making;Iran 50 51 http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=7253 Abdolvahab Baghbanian Abdolvahab Baghbanian Health Promotion Research Centre, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran 98 917 313 2347, abag2253@uni.sydney.edu.au; Health Promotion Research Centre, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran 98 917 313 2347, abag2253@uni.sydney.edu.au Health Promotion Research Centre, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran 98 917 313 2347, abag2253@uni.sydney.edu.au; Health Promotion Research Centre, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran 98 917 313 2347, abag2253@uni.sydney.edu.au
en 10.5812/jhs.4590 Catalytic Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide Using Copper-Zinc Mixed Oxide Nanoparticles Supported on Diatomite Catalytic Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide Using Copper-Zinc Mixed Oxide Nanoparticles Supported on Diatomite research-article research-article Background

Diatomite coated by nanoparticles of copper and zinc mixed oxides were used to investigate catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide.

Objectives

Aim of this paper was to investigatediatomite performance as a supporting host to confine the CuO and ZnO nanoparticles and its catalytic activity for carbon monoxide oxidation.

Materials and Methods

The prepared catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Catalytic behavior for CO oxidation was studied at different conditions in a tubular reactor packed with catalyst.

Results

The results illustrated that diatomite is the promising candidate for catalyst support due to its unique characteristics. The variation of catalytic activity of the prepared composite catalysts withdifferent molar fractions of CuO and ZnO for CO oxidation in different reaction temperatures was investigated. It was found that a CO conversion of 100% can be achieved at 300 ºC over catalyst with 80 mol% CuO and 20 mol% ZnO content.

Background

Diatomite coated by nanoparticles of copper and zinc mixed oxides were used to investigate catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide.

Objectives

Aim of this paper was to investigatediatomite performance as a supporting host to confine the CuO and ZnO nanoparticles and its catalytic activity for carbon monoxide oxidation.

Materials and Methods

The prepared catalysts were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Catalytic behavior for CO oxidation was studied at different conditions in a tubular reactor packed with catalyst.

Results

The results illustrated that diatomite is the promising candidate for catalyst support due to its unique characteristics. The variation of catalytic activity of the prepared composite catalysts withdifferent molar fractions of CuO and ZnO for CO oxidation in different reaction temperatures was investigated. It was found that a CO conversion of 100% can be achieved at 300 ºC over catalyst with 80 mol% CuO and 20 mol% ZnO content.

52 56 http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=4590 Saeed Dehestani Athar Saeed Dehestani Athar Environmental and Occupational Health Engineering Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiatmooeswwsuowws{}}y, IR Iran +98-2182883825, asilia_h@ modares.ac.ir Environmental and Occupational Health Engineering Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiatmooeswwsuowws{}}y, IR Iran +98-2182883825, asilia_h@ modares.ac.ir Hasan Asilian Hasan Asilian Environmental and Occupational Health Engineering Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiatmooeswwsuowws{}}y, IR Iran +98-2182883825, asilia_h@ modares.ac.ir; Environmental and Occupational Health Engineering Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiatmooeswwsuowws{}}y, IR Iran +98-2182883825, asilia_h@ modares.ac.ir Environmental and Occupational Health Engineering Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiatmooeswwsuowws{}}y, IR Iran +98-2182883825, asilia_h@ modares.ac.ir; Environmental and Occupational Health Engineering Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiatmooeswwsuowws{}}y, IR Iran +98-2182883825, asilia_h@ modares.ac.ir
en 10.5812/jhs.6820 The Relationship Between Atherosclerosis and the Intima Media Thickness of Carotid Arteries With Serum C-Reactive Protein Levels in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus The Relationship Between Atherosclerosis and the Intima Media Thickness of Carotid Arteries With Serum C-Reactive Protein Levels in Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus research-article research-article Background

Patients with systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) are more prone to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases due to atherosclerosis and consequently death.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to explore a possible relationship between the intima media thickness (IMT) of carotid arteries and the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in SLE patients.

Patients and Methods:

Sixty SLE patients and 60 healthy persons, being matched in age, ethnicity, gender and body mass index, were recruited for the study. The thickness of intima-media of the carotid arteries and the levels of CRP were measured using color Doppler ultrasonography and highly sensitive CRP measurement methods, respectively then findings were compared between the two groups.

Results:

Ultrasonographic evaluation showed atherosclerosis in 6 (10%) and 3 persons (5%) of the patients and control groups, respectively (P = 0. 298). The mean thickness of intima-media was not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.31).But the mean level of CRP was significantly higher in patients group (P = 0. 005).

Conclusions:

We could not find any relationship between the serum CRP level and the risk of atherosclerosis progression in patients with SLE. Perhaps, SLE alone is not an independentrisk factor for atherosclerosis.

Background

Patients with systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) are more prone to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases due to atherosclerosis and consequently death.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to explore a possible relationship between the intima media thickness (IMT) of carotid arteries and the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in SLE patients.

Patients and Methods:

Sixty SLE patients and 60 healthy persons, being matched in age, ethnicity, gender and body mass index, were recruited for the study. The thickness of intima-media of the carotid arteries and the levels of CRP were measured using color Doppler ultrasonography and highly sensitive CRP measurement methods, respectively then findings were compared between the two groups.

Results:

Ultrasonographic evaluation showed atherosclerosis in 6 (10%) and 3 persons (5%) of the patients and control groups, respectively (P = 0. 298). The mean thickness of intima-media was not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.31).But the mean level of CRP was significantly higher in patients group (P = 0. 005).

Conclusions:

We could not find any relationship between the serum CRP level and the risk of atherosclerosis progression in patients with SLE. Perhaps, SLE alone is not an independentrisk factor for atherosclerosis.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus;Carotid Intima-Media Thickness;Atherosclerosis;C - Reactive Protein Systemic Lupus Erythematosus;Carotid Intima-Media Thickness;Atherosclerosis;C - Reactive Protein 57 60 http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=6820 Zahra Zakeri Zahra Zakeri Department of Internal Medicine, Ali-Ebne-Abitaleb Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran +98-915-1410570, mahnazsandooghi@ yahoo.com; Department of Internal Medicine, Ali-Ebne-Abitaleb Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran +98-915-1410570, mahnazsandooghi@ yahoo.com Department of Internal Medicine, Ali-Ebne-Abitaleb Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran +98-915-1410570, mahnazsandooghi@ yahoo.com; Department of Internal Medicine, Ali-Ebne-Abitaleb Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran +98-915-1410570, mahnazsandooghi@ yahoo.com Sharareh Saneie Sistani Sharareh Saneie Sistani Department of Radiology, Ali-Ebne-Abitaleb Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, , IR Iran Department of Radiology, Ali-Ebne-Abitaleb Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, , IR Iran Zohre Bari Zohre Bari Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran Mahmoud Imani Mahmoud Imani Department of Pediatric, Ali-Ebne-Abitaleb Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, , IR Iran Department of Pediatric, Ali-Ebne-Abitaleb Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, , IR Iran Mohammad Reza Miradi Mohammad Reza Miradi Department of Internal Medicine, Ali-Ebne-Abitaleb Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran +98-915-1410570, mahnazsandooghi@ yahoo.com Department of Internal Medicine, Ali-Ebne-Abitaleb Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran +98-915-1410570, mahnazsandooghi@ yahoo.com Mahnaz Sandoughi Mahnaz Sandoughi Department of Internal Medicine, Ali-Ebne-Abitaleb Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran +98-915-1410570, mahnazsandooghi@ yahoo.com; Department of Internal Medicine, Ali-Ebne-Abitaleb Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran +98-915-1410570, mahnazsandooghi@ yahoo.com Department of Internal Medicine, Ali-Ebne-Abitaleb Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran +98-915-1410570, mahnazsandooghi@ yahoo.com; Department of Internal Medicine, Ali-Ebne-Abitaleb Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran +98-915-1410570, mahnazsandooghi@ yahoo.com
en 10.5812/jhs.6838 Human and Vehicle Factors in Motor Vehicle Crashes and Severity of Related Injuries in South East Iran Human and Vehicle Factors in Motor Vehicle Crashes and Severity of Related Injuries in South East Iran research-article research-article Background:

Motor vehicle crashes (MVC) are considered to be the most common safety challenge, causing more than a million deaths worldwide annually.

Objectives:

The current study was aimed at identifying the etiological role of human and vehicle safety factors in road crashes, and their effects on the severity of injury and fatality in the Sistan and Baluchistan Province, South East Iran.

Patients and Methods:

In this study, 2 703 MVC recorded at the police office during one year period, were reviewed. The profile of the crashes was comprised of data that included; demographic characteristics of the injured persons in a MCV, type of crash, type of vehicles involved, location of crash, as well as human, environmental and mechanical factors which contributed to the crash. Data were analysed using binary and multinomial logistic regressions.

Results:

After adjusting for confounding factors, vehicles with passengers were 33% more likely to have a crash. Furthermore, pickup trucks and heavy trucks increased the chance of causing a crash, 1.66 and 1.84 times more than saloon cars, respectively. Vehicles made after 2005 had twice the risk of causing a crash than those made in 1980 or before. In addition, in a multivariate model; driver’s age, type of vehicle and circumstances of car damage were contributing factors to the severity of injury.

Conclusions:

Type and age of the car, the presence of passengers and the degree of damage to the car were the determinant factors for car crashes, and consequent severity of injury in the study area. Educational programs must be directed at promoting public knowledge about the consequences of their behavior as either a passenger or driver.

Background:

Motor vehicle crashes (MVC) are considered to be the most common safety challenge, causing more than a million deaths worldwide annually.

Objectives:

The current study was aimed at identifying the etiological role of human and vehicle safety factors in road crashes, and their effects on the severity of injury and fatality in the Sistan and Baluchistan Province, South East Iran.

Patients and Methods:

In this study, 2 703 MVC recorded at the police office during one year period, were reviewed. The profile of the crashes was comprised of data that included; demographic characteristics of the injured persons in a MCV, type of crash, type of vehicles involved, location of crash, as well as human, environmental and mechanical factors which contributed to the crash. Data were analysed using binary and multinomial logistic regressions.

Results:

After adjusting for confounding factors, vehicles with passengers were 33% more likely to have a crash. Furthermore, pickup trucks and heavy trucks increased the chance of causing a crash, 1.66 and 1.84 times more than saloon cars, respectively. Vehicles made after 2005 had twice the risk of causing a crash than those made in 1980 or before. In addition, in a multivariate model; driver’s age, type of vehicle and circumstances of car damage were contributing factors to the severity of injury.

Conclusions:

Type and age of the car, the presence of passengers and the degree of damage to the car were the determinant factors for car crashes, and consequent severity of injury in the study area. Educational programs must be directed at promoting public knowledge about the consequences of their behavior as either a passenger or driver.

Motor Vehicle;Iran;Injuries Motor Vehicle;Iran;Injuries 61 65 http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=6838 Mahdi Mohammadi Mahdi Mohammadi Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, , IR Iran +98-9155412155, ansarialireza@yahoo.com Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, , IR Iran +98-9155412155, ansarialireza@yahoo.com Mahmoud Imani Mahmoud Imani Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran Fatemeh Tajari Fatemeh Tajari Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran Farzad Akbari Farzad Akbari Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran Fariborz Rashedi Fariborz Rashedi Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran Ardavan Ghasemi Ardavan Ghasemi Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran Zahedan University of Medical Sciences,, IR Iran Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, , IR Iran +98-9155412155, ansarialireza@yahoo.com; Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, , IR Iran +98-9155412155, ansarialireza@yahoo.com Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, , IR Iran +98-9155412155, ansarialireza@yahoo.com; Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, , IR Iran +98-9155412155, ansarialireza@yahoo.com
en 10.5812/jhs.5462 Influences of Solution Chemistry on Phenol Removal From Aqueous Environments by Electrocoagulation Process Using Aluminum Electrodes Influences of Solution Chemistry on Phenol Removal From Aqueous Environments by Electrocoagulation Process Using Aluminum Electrodes research-article research-article Background

This study demonstrates the removal efficiency of phenol from aqueous solutions by electrocoagulation process using aluminum electrodes and also investigates solution chemistry and polymeric natural organic matters on removal efficiency

Objectives:

The main aim of this work was to focus on the removal of phenol by electrocoagulation process using aluminum electrodes.

Materials and Methods:

This study was conducted in a bench scale. The Plexiglas cell was employed as an electrolytic reactor with dimensions of 12cm× 12cm × 16cm and a working volume of about 1.5 L was used to conduct the experiments, and a magnetic stirrer was applied for mixing (200rpm). Concentrations of phenol were determined by spectrophotometer according to the analysis of the color resulted from the reaction of phenol with 4-aminoantipyrine at 500 nm. Alginate was selected as a model of polymeric natural organic matter (PNOM).

Results

The results showed that optimum pH was 7 for the phenol removal. The highest removal rate was observed 91% for 25 mA/cm2 of the current intensity. Changes of ionic content (from 0.5 to2 mg/l) lead to an increase of the removal efficiency from 63% to 92%. The removal rate hasdecreased with increasing the initial phenol concentration. Adding alginate in the solution decreased the removal efficiency from 82% to 61%.

Conclusions:

According to the results of this paper, electrocoagulation process by using aluminum electrodes is a promising process for decontamination of wastewaters containing high concentrations of phenol.

Background

This study demonstrates the removal efficiency of phenol from aqueous solutions by electrocoagulation process using aluminum electrodes and also investigates solution chemistry and polymeric natural organic matters on removal efficiency

Objectives:

The main aim of this work was to focus on the removal of phenol by electrocoagulation process using aluminum electrodes.

Materials and Methods:

This study was conducted in a bench scale. The Plexiglas cell was employed as an electrolytic reactor with dimensions of 12cm× 12cm × 16cm and a working volume of about 1.5 L was used to conduct the experiments, and a magnetic stirrer was applied for mixing (200rpm). Concentrations of phenol were determined by spectrophotometer according to the analysis of the color resulted from the reaction of phenol with 4-aminoantipyrine at 500 nm. Alginate was selected as a model of polymeric natural organic matter (PNOM).

Results

The results showed that optimum pH was 7 for the phenol removal. The highest removal rate was observed 91% for 25 mA/cm2 of the current intensity. Changes of ionic content (from 0.5 to2 mg/l) lead to an increase of the removal efficiency from 63% to 92%. The removal rate hasdecreased with increasing the initial phenol concentration. Adding alginate in the solution decreased the removal efficiency from 82% to 61%.

Conclusions:

According to the results of this paper, electrocoagulation process by using aluminum electrodes is a promising process for decontamination of wastewaters containing high concentrations of phenol.

Fungi;Arsenic;Tolerance;Accumulation;Bioremediation Fungi;Arsenic;Tolerance;Accumulation;Bioremediation 66 70 http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=5462 Mohammad Ali Zazouli Mohammad Ali Zazouli Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Health Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-1513543080-8, taghavim66@gmail.com Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Health Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-1513543080-8, taghavim66@gmail.com Mahmoud Taghavi Mahmoud Taghavi Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Health Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-1513543080-8, taghavim66@gmail.com; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Health Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-1513543080-8, taghavim66@gmail.com Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Health Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-1513543080-8, taghavim66@gmail.com; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Health Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-1513543080-8, taghavim66@gmail.com Edris Bazrafshan Edris Bazrafshan Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran
en 10.5812/jhs.6654 Assessment of Musculoskeletal Loads of Electric Factory Workers by Rapid Entire Body Assessment Assessment of Musculoskeletal Loads of Electric Factory Workers by Rapid Entire Body Assessment research-article research-article Background:

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are a leading cause of disability and workers compensations.

Objectives:

The research was done in Tehran Pars-electric factory to prevent inducing WMSDs. Rapid entire body assessment (REBA) was carried out to assess musculoskeletal loads on workers due to their postures, repetition, and force. Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire (NMQ) was also used to obtain prevalence of entire body disorders.

Patients and Methods:

All 673 workers aged 19-49 with mean age of 32.3 (SD = 11.9 years):355 males aged 25-49 with mean age of 38.9 (SD = 7.3 years); 318 females aged 19-33 with mean age of 25.6 (SD = 9.8 years) were examined. Total prevalence’s wrists, lower arms,upper arms, neck, trunk and legs disorders were gained 606 (90%), 532 (79%), 472 (70.1%),345 (51.3%), 243 (36.1%), and 404 (60%) respectively (P = 0.012).

Results:

The number of tasks located in action levels of 2, 3 and 4 were 9, 11 and 12 tasks correspondingly. No tasks were placed in action level of 0 and 1.Thereby,further actions, ergonomic designing solutions, and multiple preventions are necessary.

ConclusionS:

REBA tool is a useful and an applicable tool for assessing risk factors producing entire body disorders on workers performing various tasks in electric factory.

Background:

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are a leading cause of disability and workers compensations.

Objectives:

The research was done in Tehran Pars-electric factory to prevent inducing WMSDs. Rapid entire body assessment (REBA) was carried out to assess musculoskeletal loads on workers due to their postures, repetition, and force. Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire (NMQ) was also used to obtain prevalence of entire body disorders.

Patients and Methods:

All 673 workers aged 19-49 with mean age of 32.3 (SD = 11.9 years):355 males aged 25-49 with mean age of 38.9 (SD = 7.3 years); 318 females aged 19-33 with mean age of 25.6 (SD = 9.8 years) were examined. Total prevalence’s wrists, lower arms,upper arms, neck, trunk and legs disorders were gained 606 (90%), 532 (79%), 472 (70.1%),345 (51.3%), 243 (36.1%), and 404 (60%) respectively (P = 0.012).

Results:

The number of tasks located in action levels of 2, 3 and 4 were 9, 11 and 12 tasks correspondingly. No tasks were placed in action level of 0 and 1.Thereby,further actions, ergonomic designing solutions, and multiple preventions are necessary.

ConclusionS:

REBA tool is a useful and an applicable tool for assessing risk factors producing entire body disorders on workers performing various tasks in electric factory.

REBA;Musculoskeletal Loads;Rapid Entire Body Assessment;Risk Assessment REBA;Musculoskeletal Loads;Rapid Entire Body Assessment;Risk Assessment 71 79 http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=6654 Seyyed Ali Moussavi-Najarkola Seyyed Ali Moussavi-Najarkola Department of Occupational Health, School of Medical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti of Medical University (SBMU), Iran +98-2122432040, mosavi58@gmail.com; Department of Occupational Health, School of Medical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti of Medical University (SBMU), Iran +98-2122432040, mosavi58@gmail.com Department of Occupational Health, School of Medical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti of Medical University (SBMU), Iran +98-2122432040, mosavi58@gmail.com; Department of Occupational Health, School of Medical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti of Medical University (SBMU), Iran +98-2122432040, mosavi58@gmail.com Ramazan Mirzaei Ramazan Mirzaei Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Iran Health Promotion Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Iran
en 10.5812/jhs.6482 Effective Causes of Work-Related Accidents Among Mashhad Workers in a 3-Year Period (2004-2007) Effective Causes of Work-Related Accidents Among Mashhad Workers in a 3-Year Period (2004-2007) research-article research-article Background

Accident is an event that occurs suddenly, unexpectedly and inadvertently under unforeseen circumstances. Accidents can have individual, social and economical effects 2080 injury cases including labor-law workers were studied in Mashhad city, Islamic Republic of Iran. Their data were collected from the labor office archive.

Objectives

This study was conducted to determine the effective causes of inducing of accidents among labor-law of Mashhad in Iran.

Materials and Methods

In this cross-sectional analytic study, data on accidents related to labor-law workers for a period of three years (2004–2007) were collected from the laboroffice archive, in Mashhad. All recorded accidents were investigated and analyzed bySPSS 13 software.

Results

This study was conducted in Mashhad and results showed that Accidents were more common in married rather than single workers (71.8% vs. 28.2%) and men rather than omen (%97.3 vs. %2.7). Bone fractures (68.2%), followed by injuries of maimed (18.5%) and death (9.9%) and burn injuries (3.5%) were the most common results. \r\nAccidents were more prevalent in 20-30 year-old range. There were statistically significant relationships among result of accident and age, marital status, insurance status, minimum wage, educational level and work history (P < 0.05). The greatest level of accident was among workers with the minimum wage.

Conclusions

Conclusions: Proper accident investigation and cause identification found to be helpful for accident prevention or reduction. Therefore, appropriate decision should be made regarding holding training courses for all workers as part of pre-employment training and before starting the work.

Background

Accident is an event that occurs suddenly, unexpectedly and inadvertently under unforeseen circumstances. Accidents can have individual, social and economical effects 2080 injury cases including labor-law workers were studied in Mashhad city, Islamic Republic of Iran. Their data were collected from the labor office archive.

Objectives

This study was conducted to determine the effective causes of inducing of accidents among labor-law of Mashhad in Iran.

Materials and Methods

In this cross-sectional analytic study, data on accidents related to labor-law workers for a period of three years (2004–2007) were collected from the laboroffice archive, in Mashhad. All recorded accidents were investigated and analyzed bySPSS 13 software.

Results

This study was conducted in Mashhad and results showed that Accidents were more common in married rather than single workers (71.8% vs. 28.2%) and men rather than omen (%97.3 vs. %2.7). Bone fractures (68.2%), followed by injuries of maimed (18.5%) and death (9.9%) and burn injuries (3.5%) were the most common results. \r\nAccidents were more prevalent in 20-30 year-old range. There were statistically significant relationships among result of accident and age, marital status, insurance status, minimum wage, educational level and work history (P < 0.05). The greatest level of accident was among workers with the minimum wage.

Conclusions

Conclusions: Proper accident investigation and cause identification found to be helpful for accident prevention or reduction. Therefore, appropriate decision should be made regarding holding training courses for all workers as part of pre-employment training and before starting the work.

Accidents;Occupational;Occupational Injuries Accidents;Occupational;Occupational Injuries 80 83 http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=6482 Ramazan Mirzaei Ramazan Mirzaei Health Promotion Research Center, [choomnowniwe~wi|yzonemeniwomvws{m~{eof Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9122887587, rammir277@yahoo.com; Health Promotion Research Center, [choomnowniwe~wi|yzonemeniwomvws{m~{eof Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9122887587, rammir277@yahoo.com Health Promotion Research Center, [choomnowniwe~wi|yzonemeniwomvws{m~{eof Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9122887587, rammir277@yahoo.com; Health Promotion Research Center, [choomnowniwe~wi|yzonemeniwomvws{m~{eof Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9122887587, rammir277@yahoo.com Hossein Ansari Hossein Ansari Health Promotion Research Center, [choomnowniwe~wi|yzonemeniwomvws{m~{eof Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9122887587, rammir277@yahoo.com Health Promotion Research Center, [choomnowniwe~wi|yzonemeniwomvws{m~{eof Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9122887587, rammir277@yahoo.com Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam Health Promotion Research Center, [choomnowniwe~wi|yzonemeniwomvws{m~{eof Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9122887587, rammir277@yahoo.com Health Promotion Research Center, [choomnowniwe~wi|yzonemeniwomvws{m~{eof Medical Sciences, IR Iran +98-9122887587, rammir277@yahoo.com Laleh Kamalian Laleh Kamalian Labour and Social Affairs Administration, IR Iran Labour and Social Affairs Administration, IR Iran Mohammad Nourafshan Mohammad Nourafshan Labour and Social Affairs Administration, IR Iran Labour and Social Affairs Administration, IR Iran
en 10.5812/jhs.5120 Determination of the Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth Index in Iranian Students: A Case Study of Zahedan City Determination of the Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth Index in Iranian Students: A Case Study of Zahedan City research-article research-article Background:

One of the most important health problems in life is dental caries or tooth decay. Untreated caries are painful and may affect diet, school attendance, and sleep. Tooth decay can also have significant negative health and social consequences in later life.

Objectives:

The aim of this study was to determine the decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index in 8-12 year old students in Zahedan City and also to determine fluoride concentrations in drinking water in the studied area.

Patients and Methods:

This descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed in 2009 on 800 (400 boys and 400 girls) 8-12 year old students, who were randomly selected in Zahedan City (southeast of Iran) to assess the DMFT index. The DMFT index was determined using standard methods suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) and drinking water fluoride concentration was measured in 144 samples collected from 12 desalination units using the SPADNS method. Data was analyzed using SPSS 15 software and presented as mean ± SD.

Results:

The mean DMFT value was 2.41 ± 2.12, which was higher in the boys (2.68 ± 2.15) in comparison with the girls (2.13 ± 1.91). Of the subjects surveyed, 38.5% were healthy, with 42.5% of the girls and 63.75% of the boys. The mean fluoride concentration of the drinking water was 0.57 ± 0.07 mg/L, which is less than the normal range (1.5 mg/L).

Conclusions:

According to the results of the present study, the DMFT scores in 8-12 year old students are higher than the global standards suggested by WHO. Results indicate that the availability of other sources of fluoride must also be considered and taken into account in public health dentistry planning programs.

Background:

One of the most important health problems in life is dental caries or tooth decay. Untreated caries are painful and may affect diet, school attendance, and sleep. Tooth decay can also have significant negative health and social consequences in later life.

Objectives:

The aim of this study was to determine the decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index in 8-12 year old students in Zahedan City and also to determine fluoride concentrations in drinking water in the studied area.

Patients and Methods:

This descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed in 2009 on 800 (400 boys and 400 girls) 8-12 year old students, who were randomly selected in Zahedan City (southeast of Iran) to assess the DMFT index. The DMFT index was determined using standard methods suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) and drinking water fluoride concentration was measured in 144 samples collected from 12 desalination units using the SPADNS method. Data was analyzed using SPSS 15 software and presented as mean ± SD.

Results:

The mean DMFT value was 2.41 ± 2.12, which was higher in the boys (2.68 ± 2.15) in comparison with the girls (2.13 ± 1.91). Of the subjects surveyed, 38.5% were healthy, with 42.5% of the girls and 63.75% of the boys. The mean fluoride concentration of the drinking water was 0.57 ± 0.07 mg/L, which is less than the normal range (1.5 mg/L).

Conclusions:

According to the results of the present study, the DMFT scores in 8-12 year old students are higher than the global standards suggested by WHO. Results indicate that the availability of other sources of fluoride must also be considered and taken into account in public health dentistry planning programs.

DMF Index; Drinking Water; Fluoride; Iran DMF Index; Drinking Water; Fluoride; Iran 84 88 http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=5120 Edris Bazrafshan Edris Bazrafshan Health Promotion Research Center and School of Public Health, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center and School of Public Health, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Hossein Kamani Hossein Kamani Schools of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Schools of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Ferdos Kord Mostafapour Ferdos Kord Mostafapour Health Promotion Research Center and School of Public Health, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Health Promotion Research Center and School of Public Health, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, IR Iran Amir Hossein Mahvi Amir Hossein Mahvi Schools of Public Health and Center for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Institute of Health Research, Ministry of Health, IR Iran +98-9123211827, ahmahvi@yahoo.com; Institute of Health Research, Ministry of Health, IR Iran; Schools of Public Health and Center for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Institute of Health Research, Ministry of Health, IR Iran +98-9123211827, ahmahvi@yahoo.com Schools of Public Health and Center for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Institute of Health Research, Ministry of Health, IR Iran +98-9123211827, ahmahvi@yahoo.com; Institute of Health Research, Ministry of Health, IR Iran; Schools of Public Health and Center for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Institute of Health Research, Ministry of Health, IR Iran +98-9123211827, ahmahvi@yahoo.com
en 10.5812/jhs.6573 Transforming Information Into Knowledge: Quick Diagnosis and Prognosis Transforming Information Into Knowledge: Quick Diagnosis and Prognosis letter letter Knowledge Diagnosis Prognosis Knowledge Diagnosis Prognosis 89 90 http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=6573 Syed Hassan Syed Tajuddin Syed Hassan Syed Tajuddin Department of Medicine, Malaysia; Departments of Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 43400 UPM Serdang, Malaysia +60-389472412, tajuddin@medic.upm.edu.my Department of Medicine, Malaysia; Departments of Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 43400 UPM Serdang, Malaysia +60-389472412, tajuddin@medic.upm.edu.my Rosha Abdul Raman Rosha Abdul Raman Department of Medicine, Malaysia Department of Medicine, Malaysia Haliza Mohd Riji Haliza Mohd Riji Departments of Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 43400 UPM Serdang, Malaysia +60-389472412, tajuddin@medic.upm.edu.my Departments of Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 43400 UPM Serdang, Malaysia +60-389472412, tajuddin@medic.upm.edu.my
en 10.5812/jhs.6870 Short-Term Pre-Pregnancy Health Education May Improve Maternal Nutrition Behavior, but not Nutrition Self-Efficacy Short-Term Pre-Pregnancy Health Education May Improve Maternal Nutrition Behavior, but not Nutrition Self-Efficacy letter letter Pregnancy;Health;education Pregnancy;Health;education 91 92 http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=6870 Amanda Rodrigues Amorim Adegboye Amanda Rodrigues Amorim Adegboye Research Unit for Dietary Studies, Institute of Preventive Medicine, Denmark +45-33383772, AAR@ipm.regionh.dk; Research Unit for Dietary Studies, Institute of Preventive Medicine, Denmark +45-33383772, AAR@ipm.regionh.dk Research Unit for Dietary Studies, Institute of Preventive Medicine, Denmark +45-33383772, AAR@ipm.regionh.dk; Research Unit for Dietary Studies, Institute of Preventive Medicine, Denmark +45-33383772, AAR@ipm.regionh.dk
en 10.5812/jhs.7095 Are Food Supplements and Phytotherapeutics Potential Pharmacological Alternatives to Conventional Medications? Are Food Supplements and Phytotherapeutics Potential Pharmacological Alternatives to Conventional Medications? letter letter 93 94 http://www.jhealthscope.portal.tools/index.php?page=article&article_id=7095 Maurizio Coppola Maurizio Coppola Department of Addiction, Italy +39-173316210, coppolamail@alice.it; Department of Addiction, Italy +39-173316210, coppolamail@alice.it Department of Addiction, Italy +39-173316210, coppolamail@alice.it; Department of Addiction, Italy +39-173316210, coppolamail@alice.it